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The three types of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), termed alpha, delta (or beta), and gamma, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Although peroxisome proliferators, including fibrates and fatty acids, activate the transcriptional activity of these receptors, only prostaglandin J2 derivatives have been identified as natural ligands(More)
Increased activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) may explain the hypotriglyceridemic effects of fibrates, thiazolidinediones and fatty acids, which are known activators (and/or ligands) of the various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Treatment with compounds which activate preferentially PPARalpha, such as fenofibrate, induced LPL(More)
Th1 cytokines promote monocyte differentiation into proatherogenic M1 macrophages, while Th2 cytokines lead to an "alternative" anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Here we show that in human atherosclerotic lesions, the expression of M2 markers and PPARgamma, a nuclear receptor controlling macrophage inflammation, correlate positively. Moreover,(More)
Recently, the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been associated with type 2 diabetes in subjects of European origin in the DeCode study. We genotyped the two most associated variants (rs7903146 and rs12255372) in 2,367 French type 2 diabetic subjects and in 2,499 control subjects. Both the T-allele of rs7903146 and the T-allele of rs12255372(More)
The incidence of the metabolic syndrome has taken epidemic proportions in the past decades, contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a cluster of cardiovascular disease risk factors including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, increased blood pressure, and(More)
Treatment with fibrates, a widely used class of lipid-modifying agents, results in a substantial decrease in plasma triglycerides and is usually associated with a moderate decrease in LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations. Recent investigations indicate that the effects of fibrates are mediated, at least in part, through(More)
PPARgamma is a member of the PPAR subfamily of nuclear receptors. In this work, the structure of the human PPARgamma cDNA and gene was determined, and its promoters and tissue-specific expression were functionally characterized. Similar to the mouse, two PPAR isoforms, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2, were detected in man. The relative expression of human(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism and cellular differentiation. PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are both expressed in human macrophages where they exert anti-inflammatory effects. The activation of PPAR-alpha may promote foam-cell formation by inducing expression of the macrophage(More)
The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. They share a high degree of structural homology with all members of the superfamily, particularly in the DNA-binding domain and ligand- and cofactor-binding domain. Many cellular and systemic roles have been(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARalpha is highly expressed in liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart and the vascular wall. PPARgamma is predominantly detected in adipose tissue, intestine and macrophages. PPARs are activated by fatty-acid(More)