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The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is involved in motor and cognitive performance through its key role in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits, but how these different modalities (motor and cognition) are controlled (similar vs. dissimilar) has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of bilateral STN deep brain stimulation (DBS) on motor(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuropsychiatric disease, which is not only characterized by motor symptoms, but also by cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. It is hypothesized that some of the non-motor symptoms are related to the serotonergic deficiency that is present in PD. AIM To study the influence of serotonin on cognition, memory and motor(More)
Apathy is generally defined as a disorder of motivation and is considered one of the most common neuropsychiatric disturbances in Parkinson's disease (PD). Only few studies addressed the neuroanatomical correlates of apathy in PD. The aim of this article was to determine the structural correlates of apathy in PD patients. Fifty-five PD patients underwent a(More)
Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) studies have shown that serotonin plays a role in learning and memory processes. In this study, we performed a pooled analysis of nine ATD studies in order to examine the nature of the memory-impairing effects of ATD and mediating factors, such as gender, age and vulnerability for disease in which disturbed serotonin was(More)
The serotonergic hypothesis for depression in Parkinson's disease (PD) states that the reduced cerebral serotonergic activity that occurs in PD constitutes a biological risk factor for depression. The aim of our study was to assess the serotonergic hypothesis of depression in PD patients using an experimental approach. In a double-blind, randomized order,(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuropsychiatric disease affecting approximately 1-2% of the general population. The classical triad of symptoms, tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia is mainly caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra. However, other neurotransmitter systems also show signs of degeneration, among which the(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), several neurotransmitter systems, such as the dopaminergic and serotonergic system, show signs of degeneration. This led to the suggestion that alterations in the serotonergic system play a role in the pathophysiology of PD. Partial bilateral dopaminergic lesions of the caudate putamen complex (CPu) of rats induced by(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson disease (PD) is a neuropsychiatric disease that is characterized by motor and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Multiple neurotransmitter systems, including the serotonergic system, are involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. The exact role of the serotonergic system in PD is still unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of(More)
BACKGROUND Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) are often reported to have an impaired performance on tests measuring executive functioning, such as fluency tasks. AIM To investigate whether verbal fluency is impaired in PD patients (n = 25) compared with healthy controls (n = 15) using a 2-min semantic and phonemic verbal fluency test. A(More)
Using a finger cuing paradigm, we investigated response preparation in Parkinson's disease (PD). The central question was whether PD individuals are differentially affected by preparatory cues that specify a more automatic response set configuration (that induces within-hand preparation) as opposed to a more controlled one (that induces between-hands(More)