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The lactose-H+ symport protein (LacS) of Streptococcus thermophilus has a C-terminal hydrophilic domain that is homologous to IIA protein(s) domains of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). C-terminal truncation mutants were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli and their properties were analyzed. Remarkably, the entire IIA(More)
Traumatic injury of the central nervous system (CNS) has severe impact on the patients' quality of life and initiates many molecular and cellular changes at the site of insult. Traumatic CNS injury results in direct damage of the axons of CNS neurons, loss of myelin sheaths, destruction of the surrounding vascular architecture and initiation of an immune(More)
The significance of sexual selection, the component of natural selection associated with variation in mating success, is well established for the evolution of animals and plants, but not for the evolution of fungi. Even though fungi do not have separate sexes, most filamentous fungi mate in a hermaphroditic fashion, with distinct sex roles, that is,(More)
PURPOSE Telomere shortening has been proposed to trigger senescence, and since most primary cells do not express active telomerase, reactivation of telomerase activity was proposed as a safe and non-transforming way of immortalizing cells. However, to study radiation responses, it is as yet unclear whether cells immortalized by telomerase reactivation(More)
PURPOSE Up to 90% of hereditary breast cancer cases are linked to germ-line mutations in one of the two copies of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Brca1 and Brca2 proteins are both involved in the cellular defence against DNA damage, although the precise function of the proteins is still not known. Some studies on a small number of samples as well as the present(More)
Mating systems, that is, whether organisms give rise to progeny by selfing, inbreeding or outcrossing, strongly affect important ecological and evolutionary processes. Large variations in mating systems exist in fungi, allowing the study of their origin and consequences. In fungi, sexual incompatibility is determined by molecular recognition mechanisms,(More)
We expect that sexual selection may play an important role in the evolution of mushroom-forming basidiomycete fungi. Although these fungi do not have separate sexes, they do play female and male roles: the acceptance and the donation of a nucleus, respectively. The primary mycelium (monokaryon) of basidiomycete fungi, growing from a germinating sexual(More)
Darwin was the first to recognize that sexual selection is a strong evolutionary force. Exaggerated traits allow same-sex individuals to compete over access to mates and provide a mechanism by which mates are selected. It is relatively easy to appreciate how inter- and intrasexual selection work in organisms with the sensory capabilities to perceive(More)
Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations,(More)
Basidiomycete fungi perform fertilizations by incorporation of nuclei into a monokaryotic mycelium to establish a dikaryon. The dikaryon cannot incorporate another type of nucleus, but can still act as a nucleus donor in a dikaryon-monokaryon (di-mon) mating, known as the Buller phenomenon. Previously, it has been observed that: (1) in a particular di-mon(More)