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  • Bart Kosko
  • International Journal of Man-Machine Studies
  • 1986
Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are fuzzy-graph structures for representing causal reasoning. Their fuzziness allows hazy degrees of causality between hazy causal objects (concepts). Their graph(More)
  • Bart Kosko
  • IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics
  • 1988
Ahtract -Stability and encoding properties of two-layer nonlinear feedback neural networks are examined. Bidirectionality, forward and backward information flow, is introduced in neural nets to(More)