Bart Jan Kullberg

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Guidelines for the management of patients with invasive candidiasis and mucosal candidiasis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace the previous guidelines published in the 15 January 2004 issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases and are intended for use by health care providers who care(More)
BACKGROUND Invasive fungal diseases are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Clarity and uniformity in defining these infections are important factors in improving the quality of clinical studies. A standard set of definitions strengthens the consistency and reproducibility of such studies. METHODS After the introduction of the original European(More)
The innate immune response was once considered to be a limited set of responses that aimed to contain an infection by primitive 'ingest and kill' mechanisms, giving the host time to mount a specific humoral and cellular immune response. In the mid-1990s, however, the discovery of Toll-like receptors heralded a revolution in our understanding of how(More)
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a multilayered cell wall composed of an outer layer of proteins glycosylated with N- or O-linked mannosyl residues and an inner skeletal layer of beta-glucans and chitin. We demonstrate that cytokine production by human mononuclear cells or murine macrophages was markedly reduced when stimulated by C. albicans(More)
Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which four women who were affected by either recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or onychomycosis had the early-stop-codon mutation Tyr238X in the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1. The mutated form of dectin-1 was poorly expressed, did not(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by susceptibility to candida infection of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. Patients with recessive CMC and autoimmunity have mutations in the autoimmune regulator AIRE. The cause of autosomal dominant CMC is unknown. METHODS We evaluated 14 patients from five families with autosomal(More)
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) have become major causes of morbidity and mortality among highly immunocompromised patients. Authoritative consensus criteria to diagnose IFD have been useful in establishing eligibility criteria for antifungal trials. There is an important need for generation of consensus definitions of outcomes of IFD that will form a(More)
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Recognition of M. tuberculosis by pattern recognition receptors is crucial for activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we demonstrate that nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are two(More)
The processing of pro-interleukin-1beta depends on activation of caspase-1. Controversy has arisen whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands alone can activate caspase-1 for release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Here we demonstrate that human blood monocytes release processed IL-1beta after a one-time stimulation with either TLR2 or TLR4 ligands,(More)
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 play a pivotal role in recognition of Candida albicans. We demonstrate that TLR2(-/-) mice are more resistant to disseminated Candida infection, and this is associated with increased chemotaxis and enhanced candidacidal capacity of TLR2(-/-) macrophages. Although production of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1alpha,(More)