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ABSTRACT Two, 4-year studies on summer epidemic progress of apple scab were conducted at Randwijk, the Netherlands, from 1998 until 2001 and at Eperjeske, Hungary, from 2000 until 2003. Disease assessments were made on scab-susceptible cv. Jonagold. A range of nonlinear growth functions were fitted to a total of 96 disease progress curves (3 treatment(More)
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine whether the decline of Arnica montana L. in heathland vegetation in the Netherlands could be caused by a detrimental effect of soil acidification on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza of this species. Arnica montana and two non-declining species from the same habitat, Hieracium pilosella L. and Deschampsia(More)
Air pollution can cause a decline in species through acidification of the habitat. New data suggest that the decline may be due to eutrophication rather than acidification. In Western Europe, eutrophication largely results from atmospheric ammonium deposition. The amount deposited on vegetation is a function of its canopy structure. Deposition on grasslands(More)
In 1999 and 2000, the effects of scab fungicides on yeast composition and russeting of Elstar apples were assessed. Yeast composition of fungicide-treated and untreated young apple fruit with or without russet symptoms was investigated and enzyme activity of the yeasts was studied. Cryptococcus albidus, C.␣laurentii,Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporobolomyces(More)
A 2-year study was conducted to determine the widespread occurrence of overwintered conidial inoculum of Venturia inaequalis and its impact on the apple scab control in 18 apple orchards (organic and integrated) with various levels of scab in the Netherlands. Autumn assessments of scab lesions showed that the integrated orchards had a significantly lower(More)
The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulans, and the development of russet. All yeast inoculations(More)
Three heathand species, Antennaria dioica, Arnica montana and Hieracium pilosella, were artificially rained with ammonium sulphate solutions at increasing concentrations in a greenhouse experiment. The same species were also artificially rained with increasing ammonium sulphate solutions under field conditions. Dry weights of the plants in the field(More)
Colonization of apples by ballistoconidium-forming fungi causes a new disorder, here named 'white haze'. White haze may occur in mild form in the field, but only becomes problematic after Ultra-Low Oxygen storage, and, therefore, may be considered as a postharvest disorder. All isolates, obtained using the spore-fall method, were morphologically identified(More)
Sampling of canopy fluxes (throughfall and stemflow) below low structured vegetation with a small-scale, intricate canopy architecture is difficult, and representative sampling with most methods is questionable. In the present study, two sampling methods for canopy fluxes below grassland vegetation are compared. Method I sampled canopy fluxes of moisture(More)
In the Netherlands windbreaks are commonly grown to protect orchards against wind damage and to improve micro-climate. Natural windbreaks of broad-leaved trees can also reduce the risk of surface water contamination caused by spray drift during orchard spraying. Spray drift from pesticide applications is a major concern in the Netherlands, especially drift(More)