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BACKGROUND Tiotropium is a long-acting inhaled anticholinergic developed for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been available since 2002. We sought to update an evaluation of the safety of tiotropium in the HandiHaler formulation as significant clinical trial data have become available over time. METHODS Pooled analysis(More)
H+ accumulation at the sarcolemma is believed to play a key role in determining the electrophysiological correlates of fatigue. This paper describes an in vitro method to externally manipulate muscle pH while measuring the resultant effect on surface-detected median frequency (MDF) and conduction velocity (CV) parameters. Hamster muscle diaphragm strips (n(More)
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