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Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) have been shown in mice to regulate metabolism via the central nervous system, but the specific neurons mediating these effects are unknown. Here, we have shown that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron-specific deficiency in PTP1B or SHP2 in mice results in(More)
The FDA-approved glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exendin-4 and liraglutide reduce food intake and body weight. Nausea is the most common adverse side effect reported with these GLP-1R agonists. Whether food intake suppression by exendin-4 and liraglutide occurs independently of nausea is unknown. Further, the neurophysiological mechanisms(More)
Cancer chemotherapy drugs, such as cisplatin, potently produce nausea and vomiting. Acute effects of these treatments are partly controlled by antiemetic drugs, but the delayed effects (>24 h), especially nausea, are more difficult to treat. It is unknown what brain pathways produce this delayed sickness. Our prior data show that brain Fos expression is(More)
Leptin regulates energy balance through central circuits that control food intake and energy expenditure, including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. POMC neuron-specific deletion of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) (Ptpn1(loxP/loxP) POMC-Cre), a negative regulator of CNS leptin signaling, results in resistance to diet-induced obesity and improved(More)
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase implicated in the negative regulation of leptin and insulin receptor signaling. PTP1B(-/-) mice possess a lean metabolic phenotype attributed at least partially to improved hypothalamic leptin sensitivity. Interestingly, mice lacking both leptin and PTP1B(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation within the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) suppresses food intake and body weight (BW), but the intracellular signals mediating these effects are unknown. Here, hindbrain (fourth i.c.v.) GLP-1R activation by Exendin-4 (Ex-4) increased PKA and MAPK activity and decreased phosphorylation of AMPK in NTS.(More)
Cocaine addiction continues to be a significant public health problem for which there are currently no effective FDA-approved treatments. Thus, there is a clear need to identify and develop novel pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction. Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)(More)
Regulation of energy balance is extremely complex, and involves multiple systems of hormones, neurotransmitters, receptors, and intracellular signals. As data have accumulated over the last two decades, the CNS melanocortin system is now identified as a prominent integrative network of energy balance controls in the mammalian brain. Here, we will review(More)
Clay consumption can occur during illness but there has been little work to understand why. To investigate whether consuming clay confers an advantage to the sick animal, we compared the recovery from illness of adult male rats with or without access to kaolin. Illness was induced by injection of 6 mg/kg, ip, cisplatin, a toxic chemotherapy agent, and(More)
Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, induce vomiting, nausea, and anorexia. Cisplatin primarily acts on vagal afferents to produce emesis, but little is known about how this drug generates nausea and anorexia. Electrophysiology indicates that cisplatin activates vagal afferents of the common hepatic branch (CHB). Rats lack an emetic response but do ingest(More)