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Plants of Lolium perenne were grown in sterile solution culture. 15N-labelled glycine (Gly) coupled with gas chromatograph mass spectrometry was used to prove that non-mycorrhizal plants of L. perenne are capable of acquiring N in the form of intact Gly. It was estimated that a minimum of 80% of Gly-N uptake, over a 3 h period, was as intact Gly, though(More)
SUMMARY *The flux of carbon from tree photosynthesis through roots to ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and other soil organisms is assumed to vary with season and with edaphic factors such as nitrogen availability, but these effects have not been quantified directly in the field. *To address this deficiency, we conducted high temporal-resolution tracing of (13)C(More)
Removable retainer wear is most related to patient comfort and acceptance. Patient compliance is essential for retention and maintenance of the orthodontic treatment results. Even though patients are educated about the need for prolonged retention after active treatment and asked to sign informed consent regarding the risk of noncompliance (relapse) prior(More)
Carbon dioxide respired by soils comes from both autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration. 13C has proved useful in differentiating between these two sources, but requires the collection and analysis of CO2 efflux from the soil. We have developed a novel, open chamber system which allows for the accurate and precise quantification of the delta13C of(More)
Plants of Lolium perenne L. were grown in sterile solution culture supplied with 2 mol m(-3) nitrogen as either nitrate or ammonium. Glutamine at 5 mol m(-3) was added to the nutrient solution of half the plants for 24 h. Root nitrate influx (at external nitrate concentrations 0-2000 mmol m(-3)) and amino acid concentrations were determined. In a second(More)
The priming effect (PE) is a complex phenomenon which describes a modification (acceleration or retardation) in the mineralisation rate of refractory organic matter (OM) following inputs of labile material. PEs are well-studied in terrestrial ecosystems owing to their potential importance in the evolution of soil carbon stocks but have been largely ignored(More)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of defoliation intensity, defoliation frequency, and interactions with N supply on N uptake, N mobilization from and N allocation to roots, adult leaves, and growing leaves. Plants of Lolium perenne were grown under two contrasted N regimes. Defoliation intensity treatments consisted of a range of percentage(More)
Patterns of synthesis and breakdown of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stores are relatively well known. But the role of mobilized stores as substrates for growth remains less clear. In this article, a novel approach to estimate C and N import into leaf growth zones was coupled with steady-state labeling of photosynthesis ((13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2)) and N uptake(More)
Deep-sea sediments cover ~70% of Earth's surface and represent the largest interface between the biological and geological cycles of carbon. Diatoms and zooplankton faecal pellets naturally transport organic material from the upper ocean down to the deep seabed, but how these qualitatively different substrates affect the fate of carbon in this permanently(More)
Quantifying the concentrations of organics such as phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and n-alkanes and measuring their corresponding (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios often involves two separate analyses; (1) quantification by gas chromatography flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and (2) (13) C-isotope abundance(More)