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Neuronal immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is regulated by synaptic activity and plays an important role in the neuroplastic mechanisms critical to memory consolidation. IEGs can be divided into two functional classes: (1) regulatory transcription factors (RTFs), which can broadly influence cell function depending on the "downstream" genes they(More)
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) are critical for using learned representations of outcomes to guide behavior. Neurophysiological findings suggest complementary roles in which the BLA acquires associations between cues and outcomes and the OFC subsequently uses them to guide behavior. Here, we have used a reinforcer devaluation(More)
Certain goal-directed behaviors depend critically upon interactions between orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (ABL). Here we describe direct neurophysiological evidence of this cooperative function. We recorded from OFC in intact and ABL-lesioned rats learning odor discrimination problems. As rats learned these problems, we found that(More)
Activation of beta-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) modulates memory storage processes and long-term potentiation in downstream targets of BLA efferents, including the hippocampus. Here, we show that this activation also increases hippocampal levels of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene (also(More)
In this study, the authors examined the long-term effects of prior exposure to cocaine on a delay-discounting task commonly used to measure impulsive choice. Male Long-Evans rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of 30 mg/kg cocaine HCl or saline for 14 days. Following 3 weeks of withdrawal, rats began training. On each trial, rats were given a(More)
Addictive drugs, such as cocaine, cause long-lasting neural changes in prefrontal cortex. It has been hypothesized that these changes affect the behavioural control mediated by orbitofrontal cortex. To test this hypothesis, rats were given injections of cocaine (30 mg/kg/d, i.p.) or vehicle for 14 days and then trained after a 2-week withdrawal period in an(More)
Recent work indicates that both orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (ABL) are involved in processes by which cues are associated with predicted outcomes. To examine the respective roles of these structures in discrimination learning, rats with bilateral sham or neurotoxic lesions of either OFC or ABL were trained on a(More)
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by abnormal risky decision-making and dysregulated dopamine receptor expression. The current study was designed to determine how different dopamine receptor subtypes modulate risk-taking in young adult rats, using a "Risky Decision-making Task" that involves choices between small "safe" rewards and large "risky"(More)
Rats with complete spinal transections are capable of acquiring a simple instrumentally trained response. If rats receive shock to one hind limb when the limb is extended (controllable shock), the spinal cord will learn to hold the leg in a flexed position that minimizes shock exposure. If shock is delivered irrespective of leg position, subjects do not(More)
Loss of mnemonic function is among the earliest and most disconcerting consequences of the aging process. This study was designed to provide a comprehensive profile of spatial mnemonic abilities in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats across the lifespan. Young, middle-aged, and aged F344 rats were trained in spatial reference and working memory versions of the(More)