Learn More
Although much is known about the signals and mechanisms that lead to pathogenic interactions between plants and fungi, comparatively little is known about fungus-plant mutualistic symbioses. We describe a novel role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the mutualistic interaction between a clavicipitaceous fungal endophyte, Epichloë festucae, and(More)
Key requirements for microbes to initiate and establish mutualistic symbiotic interactions with plants are evasion of potential host defense responses and strict control of microbial growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by a specific NADPH oxidase isoform, NoxA, regulate hyphal growth in the mutualistic interaction between the fungal endophyte(More)
The indole-diterpene paxilline is a potent tremorgenic mammalian mycotoxin and a known inhibitor of maxi-K ion channels. The gene cluster responsible for paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli was identified by mapping four large plasmid-induced chromosome deletions. The cluster is predicted to lie within a 50 kb region of chromosome Va and to(More)
Antioxidants minimize oxidation of the lipid components in foods. There is an increasing interest in the use of natural and/or synthetic antioxidants in food preservation, but it is important to evaluate such compounds fully for both antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties. The properties of thymol, carvacrol, 6-ginerol, hydroxytyrosol and zingerone were(More)
Synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by specific NADPH oxidases (Nox) can serve both defense and differentiation signaling roles in animals and plants. Fungi have three subfamilies of NADPH oxidase. NoxA and NoxB have a structure very similar to the human gp91(phox). NoxC has in addition a Ca(2+) binding motif as found in the human Nox5 and plant Rboh(More)
Symbioses between cool season grasses and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae are an integral component of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. An excellent experimental model is the association between the biotrophic fungus Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass). The fungal partner produces a suite of secondary metabolites that(More)
Epichloë endophytes are a group of filamentous fungi that include both sexual (Epichloë) and asexual (Neotyphodium) species. As a group they are genetically diverse and form both antagonistic and mutualistic associations with temperate grasses. We report here on the development of a microsatellite-based PCR system for fingerprinting this group of fungi with(More)
A detailed evaluation of the antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of lipoic acid (LA) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) was performed. Both compounds are powerful scavengers of hypochlorous acid, able to protect alpha 1-antiproteinase against inactivation by HOCl. LA was a powerful scavenger of hydroxyl radicals (OH.) and could inhibit both iron-dependent OH.(More)
While much is known about the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi their biological role is often less clear. The assumption is these pathways have adaptive value to the organism but often the evidence to support this role is lacking. We provide the first genetic evidence that the fungal produced secondary metabolite, peramine,(More)
The fungal endophytes Neotyphodium lolii and Neotyphodium sp. Lp1 from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and related endophytes in other grasses, produce the ergopeptine toxin ergovaline, among other alkaloids, while also increasing plant fitness and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. In the related fungus, Claviceps purpurea, the biosynthesis of(More)