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The indole-diterpene paxilline is a potent tremorgenic mammalian mycotoxin and a known inhibitor of maxi-K ion channels. The gene cluster responsible for paxilline biosynthesis in Penicillium paxilli was identified by mapping four large plasmid-induced chromosome deletions. The cluster is predicted to lie within a 50 kb region of chromosome Va and to(More)
Lolitrems are potent tremorgenic mycotoxins that are synthesised by clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the Epichloë/Neotyphodium group in association with grasses. These indole–diterpenes confer major ecological benefits on the grass–endophyte symbiotum. A molecular signature for diterpene biosynthesis is the presence of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate(More)
Although much is known about the signals and mechanisms that lead to pathogenic interactions between plants and fungi, comparatively little is known about fungus-plant mutualistic symbioses. We describe a novel role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in regulating the mutualistic interaction between a clavicipitaceous fungal endophyte, Epichloë festucae, and(More)
While much is known about the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi their biological role is often less clear. The assumption is these pathways have adaptive value to the organism but often the evidence to support this role is lacking. We provide the first genetic evidence that the fungal produced secondary metabolite, peramine,(More)
Synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by specific NADPH oxidases (Nox) can serve both defense and differentiation signaling roles in animals and plants. Fungi have three subfamilies of NADPH oxidase. NoxA and NoxB have a structure very similar to the human gp91(phox). NoxC has in addition a Ca(2+) binding motif as found in the human Nox5 and plant Rboh(More)
Clavicipitaceous fungal endophytes of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium form symbioses with grasses of the subfamily Pooideae, in which they can synthesize an array of bioprotective alkaloids. Some strains produce the ergopeptine alkaloid ergovaline, which is implicated in livestock toxicoses caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected grasses. Cloning and(More)
Key requirements for microbes to initiate and establish mutualistic symbiotic interactions with plants are evasion of potential host defense responses and strict control of microbial growth. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by a specific NADPH oxidase isoform, NoxA, regulate hyphal growth in the mutualistic interaction between the fungal endophyte(More)
As part of a study to investigate the pathways of plasmid pAN7-1 integration in Penicillium paxilli, a molecular analysis of 90 different integration events was carried out. Twenty out of forty five integration events analyzed from transformants obtained without the addition of restriction enzyme to the transformation reaction mixture were single-copy(More)
Aflatrem is a potent tremorgenic mycotoxin produced by the soil fungus Aspergillus flavus and is a member of a large structurally diverse group of secondary metabolites known as indole-diterpenes. By using degenerate primers for conserved domains of fungal geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, we cloned two genes, atmG and ggsA (an apparent pseudogene),(More)
Symbioses between cool season grasses and fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae are an integral component of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. An excellent experimental model is the association between the biotrophic fungus Epichloë festucae and Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass). The fungal partner produces a suite of secondary metabolites that(More)