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Male offspring exposed in utero to antiandrogens often display alterations in androgen-dependent developmental markers (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD], nipple retention) together with clearly(More)
Testicular toxicity is an important safety endpoint in drug development and risk assessment, but reliable and translatable biomarkers for predicting injury have eluded researchers. However, this area(More)
Linuron is an herbicide with weak androgen receptor (AR) antagonist activity. Exposure to linuron from gestation days (GD) 12 to 21 perturbs androgen-dependent male reproductive development. In utero(More)
Sex differentiation of the male reproductive tract in mammals is driven, in part, by fetal androgen production. In utero, some phthalate esters (PEs) alter fetal Leydig cell differentiation, reducing(More)