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We assessed the preclinical characteristics of a novel, stringently screened selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene acetate, including its ability to bind to and activate estrogen receptors and promote increased bone mineral density and bone strength in rats, and the effects impacting the uterine endometrium, breast cancer cell proliferation,(More)
Both activating and null mutations of proteins required for canonical WNT signaling have revealed the importance of this pathway for normal skeletal development. However, tissue-specific transcriptional mechanisms through which WNT signaling promotes the differentiation of bone-forming cells have yet to be identified. Here, we address the hypothesis that(More)
Estrogens are known to regulate the proliferation of breast cancer cells and to alter their cytoarchitectural and phenotypic properties, but the gene networks and pathways by which estrogenic hormones regulate these events are only partially understood. We used global gene expression profiling by Affymetrix GeneChip microarray analysis, with quantitative(More)
Numerous studies have demonstrated that estrogens induce rapid and transient activation of the Src/Erk phosphorylation cascade. Activation of this cascade triggers vital cellular functions including cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the details of the molecular mechanism of this process remain to be elucidated. We have identified a previously(More)
The discovery of a second estrogen receptor (ER), called ERbeta, in 1996 sparked intense interest within the scientific community to discover its role in mediating estrogen action. However, despite more than 6 yr of research into the function of this receptor, its physiological role in mediating estrogen action remains unclear and controversial. We have(More)
Estrogens are represented by a diverse group of compounds. Within this large family of molecules are tissue-selective estrogens that have been classified as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). These compounds are characterized by the fact that they exhibit both estrogen agonist and antagonist activity dependent upon the gene promoter and target(More)
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen are effective in the treatment of many estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers and have also proven to be effective in the prevention of breast cancer in women at high risk for the disease. The comparative abilities of tamoxifen versus raloxifene in breast cancer prevention are currently(More)
Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor (ER), ERalpha and ERbeta, mediate the actions of estrogens, and although 70% of human breast cancers express ERbeta along with ERalpha, little is known about the possible comodulatory effects of these two ERs. To investigate this, we have used adenoviral gene delivery to produce human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells(More)
The beneficial effect of the selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator tamoxifen in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer is assumed to be through its ability to antagonize the stimulatory actions of estrogen, although tamoxifen can also have some estrogen-like agonist effects. Here, we report that, in addition to these mixed agonist/antagonist(More)