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The retinal circulation of the normal human retinal vasculature is statistically self-similar and fractal. Studies from several groups present strong evidence that the fractal dimension of the blood vessels in the normal human retina is approximately 1.7. This is the same fractal dimension that is found for a diffusion-limited growth process, and it may(More)
This paper provides the clinician and the researcher with an in-depth manual on the use of a scanning-slit confocal light microscope for the clinical examination and investigation of the living human cornea in vivo. The scope of the paper includes a thorough explanation of the principles of various types of confocal microscopes as well as their limitations,(More)
OBJECTIVE Confocal in vivo real-time microscopy was applied to study the corneal morphology in long-term contact lens wearers. DESIGN In a cross-sectional study, patients with a history of long-term contact lens wear underwent corneal confocal microscopy. The authors investigated 13 patients with a history of up to 26 years of soft contact lens wear, 11(More)
We describe a new, nonapplanating, real-time scanning slit confocal microscope that produces unique real-time video images of the in vivo human cornea. This new real-time slit scanning confocal microscope produces en face, single-video-frame images (2-µm sections) with high contrast through the full thickness (500 µm) of the normal cornea. No frame(More)
This study investigates the precision and intraindividual variability of a clinical optical pachometer based on low-coherence reflectometry, which was used to measure the central thickness of a human cornea in vivo. The instrument, attached to a slit lamp, is a single mode fiber optic based Michelson interferometer with a high repetition rate as previously(More)
Two-photon excitation microscopy has the potential as an effective, non-invasive, imaging tool for in vivo examination of human deep tissue structure at the subcellular level. By using infrared photons as the excitation source in two-photon microscopy, a significant improvement in penetration depth can be achieved because of the much lower tissue absorption(More)
The potential of confocal light microscopy (CLM) for in vivo observation of pathology in the anterior pole of the eye lenses was evaluated by performing an in vitro study of human lenses comparing this type of microscopy with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vitro CLM showed high resolution images of the epithelium which would enable early detection(More)