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Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM) enhances imaging speed by parallelization. It is not well understood why the imaging depth of MMM is significantly shorter than conventional single-focus multiphoton microscopy (SMM). In this report, we show that the need for spatially resolved detectors in MMM results in a system that is more sensitive to the(More)
PURPOSE Studies were designed to determine whether cell division and cell differentiation are linked directly in the corneal epithelium. To obtain these data, corneal basal epithelial cells were labeled during DNA synthesis, and the resultant daughter cells were followed for as long as 2 weeks. METHODS Adult rats were injected with 5-bromo-deoxyuridine(More)
A technique is described to obtain time-lapse reflected light confocal images of cells in the basal epithelium and adjacent wing cell layer from the in vivo human cornea. The technique is based on the sequential relocation of the unique patterns of the subepithelial nerve plexuses immediately posterior to Bowman's membrane. The patterns of individual(More)
Two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy allows in vivo high-resolution imaging of human skin structure and biochemistry with a penetration depth over 100 microm. The major damage mechanism during two-photon skin imaging is associated with the formation of cavitation at the epidermal-dermal junction, which results in thermal mechanical damage of the(More)
This paper provides the clinician and the researcher with an in-depth manual on the use of a scanning-slit confocal light microscope for the clinical examination and investigation of the living human cornea in vivo. The scope of the paper includes a thorough explanation of the principles of various types of confocal microscopes as well as their limitations,(More)
A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope was used to image the human fundus in vivo at a series of 32 sections from near the retinal surface to deep within the optic nerve head. The optical sections were digitized and aligned to compensate for eye movement during image acquisition and stored on a computer. This registered stack of optical sections was(More)
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products which are applied topically to the skin. Despite their widespread use, the safety and biological response of these particles remains an active area of investigation. In this paper we present methods based on in vivo multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in skin to address(More)