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The retinal circulation of the normal human retinal vasculature is statistically self-similar and fractal. Studies from several groups present strong evidence that the fractal dimension of the blood vessels in the normal human retina is approximately 1.7. This is the same fractal dimension that is found for a diffusion-limited growth process, and it may(More)
A confocal microscopic technique is described to obtain optical sections from the in situ ocular lens of the rabbit and mouse. Optical sections were obtained with blue light through the full thickness of the lens epithelium, and of the anterior lenticular fibers. An image showing the structure of an anterior suture was obtained from the murine lens. A(More)
Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is one of the most important recent inventions in biological imaging. This technology enables noninvasive study of biological specimens in three dimensions with submicrometer resolution. Two-photon excitation of fluorophores results from the simultaneous absorption of two photons. This excitation process has a number of(More)
Multiphoton excitation microscopy at 730 nm and 960 nm was used to image in vivo human skin autofluorescence from the surface to a depth of approximately 200 microm. The emission spectra and fluorescence lifetime images were obtained at selected locations near the surface (0-50 microm) and at deeper depths (100-150 microm) for both excitation wavelengths.(More)
Three-dimensional maps of cellular metabolic oxidation/reduction states of rabbit cornea in situ were obtained by imaging the fluorescence of the naturally occurring reduced pyridine nucleotides (both reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, NADH, and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate, NADPH, denoted here as NAD(P)H). Autofluorescence(More)
Two-photon excitation microscopy has the potential as an effective, noninvasive, diagnostic tool for in vivo examination of human deep tissue structure at the subcellular level. By using infrared photons as the excitation source in two-photon microscopy, a significant improvement in penetration depth can be achieved because of the much lower tissue(More)
This paper provides the clinician and the researcher with an in-depth manual on the use of a scanning-slit confocal light microscope for the clinical examination and investigation of the living human cornea in vivo. The scope of the paper includes a thorough explanation of the principles of various types of confocal microscopes as well as their limitations,(More)
Clinical Ophthalmology is founded on the clinician’s observation of the patient’s eye. Such eye-to-eye observation was limited to gross observations of the lids, the cornea, and the lens. The optics of the eye prevents observation of the retina by the clinician’s naked eye. New developments in ophthalmic instrumentation that augmented the naked eye(More)