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8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), ring-opened purines (formamidopyrimidines or Fapys), and other oxidized DNA base lesions generated by reactive oxygen species are often mutagenic and toxic, and have been implicated in the etiology of many diseases, including cancer, and in aging. Repair of these lesions in all organisms occurs primarily via the DNA base excision(More)
Two candidate human orthologs of Escherichia coli MutM/Nei were recently identified in the human genome database, and one of these, NEH1, was characterized earlier (Hazra, T. K., Izumi, T., Boldogh, I., Imhoff, B., Kow, Y. W., Jaruga, P., and Dizdaroglu, M. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99, 3523-3528). Here we report characterization of the second(More)
Embryonic development involves dramatic changes in cell proliferation and differentiation that must be highly coordinated and tightly regulated. Cellular redox balance is critical for cell fate decisions, but it is susceptible to disruption by endogenous and exogenous sources of oxidative stress. The most abundant endogenous nonprotein antioxidant defense(More)
Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), the major metabolite of butylated hydroxyanisole, induces an antioxidant response through the redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). However, the mechanism by which tBHQ induces Nrf2 activity is not entirely understood. Here, we show that tBHQ preferentially alters the redox status in(More)
The redox status of the extracellular compartment has only just been elucidated as a mechanism controlling intracellular signal transduction and correlates with aging, diabetes, heart disease and lung fibrosis. In the present paper, we describe a mechanism by which oxidizing extracellular environments, as maintained by the cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) redox(More)
Development is an orderly process that requires the timely activation and/or deactivation of specific regulatory elements that control cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. While many studies have defined factors that control developmental signaling, the role of intracellular reduction/oxidation (redox) status as a means to control(More)
Closely opposed lesions form a unique class of DNA damage that is generated by ionizing radiation. Improper repair of closely opposed lesions could lead to the formation of double strand breaks that can result in increased lethality and mutagenesis. In vitro processing of closely opposed lesions was studied using double-stranded DNA containing a nick in(More)
Oxidized extracellular redox states have been associated with many diseases related to obesity, including heart disease and diabetes, but relatively little is known about the relationship between extracellular redox states and obesity. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, oxidizing extracellular redox potentials (E(h)) increased intracellular and mitochondrial reactive(More)
HU is one of the most abundant DNA binding proteins in Escherichia coli. We find that it binds strongly to DNA containing an abasic (AP) site or tetrahydrofuran (THF) (apparent K(d) approximately 50 nM). It also possesses an AP lyase activity that cleaves at a deoxyribose but not at a THF residue. The binding and cleavage of an AP site was observed only(More)
VX-770 (Ivacaftor) has been approved for clinical usage in cystic fibrosis patients with several CFTR mutations. Yet the binding site(s) on CFTR for this compound and other small molecule potentiators are unknown. We hypothesize that insight into this question could be gained by comparing the effect of potentiators on CFTR channels from different origins,(More)