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Pneumolysin (PLY) is a key Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factor and potential candidate for inclusion in pneumococcal subunit vaccines. Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the initiation and instruction of adaptive immunity, but the effects of PLY on DC have not been widely investigated. Endotoxin-free PLY enhanced costimulatory molecule expression(More)
Despite the fact that CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) play a central role in maintaining self-tolerance and that IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) are pathogenic in many autoimmune diseases, evidence to date has indicated that Th17 cells are resistant to suppression by human Foxp3(+) Treg cells. It was recently demonstrated(More)
CD11c(+)CD8alpha(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DC) have been shown to promote regulatory T cell responses and mediate tolerance in the gastrointestinal tract. These cells have also been identified in the lung, but their role in immunity to respiratory tract infection is not clear. In this study, we have used a murine model of infection with Bordetella(More)
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) from mice and humans have long been known to contribute to maintaining tolerance in the lung. Studies have shown that AMs can induce anergy in CD4(+) T cells. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes have been implicated in AM-mediated tolerance. However, it remains unclear what effect, if any, AMs exert on FoxP3 induction(More)
IL-17-secreting T (Th17) cells play a protective role in certain bacterial infections, but they are major mediators of inflammation and are pathogenic in organ-specific autoimmune diseases. However, human Th17 cells appear to be resistant to suppression by CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, suggesting that they may be regulated by alternative(More)
In autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), regulatory T cells (Tregs) fail to constrain autoimmune inflammation; however, the reasons for this are unclear. We investigated T cell regulation in the RA joint. Tregs from RA synovial fluid suppressed autologous responder T cells; however, when compared with Tregs from healthy control peripheral(More)
The inflammatory effects of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) are highly disputed. Here it is demonstrated that endotoxin-free preparations of raw carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are very limited in their capacity to promote inflammatory responses in vitro, as well as in vivo. Upon purification and selective oxidation of raw CNTs, a higher dispersibility is achieved in(More)
The immune system has evolved regulatory mechanisms to control immune responses to self-antigens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immune tolerance, but tumour growth is associated with local immunosuppression, which can subvert effector immune responses. Indeed, the induction and recruitment of Treg cells by tumours is a major(More)
Th17 cells are an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, it is known that Th17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity, particularly at sites of autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells can switch to become ex-Th17 cells that no longer produce IL-17 but produce IFN-γ. These ex-Th17 cells are also called nonclassical Th1 cells because of their(More)