Barry L. Shulkin

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The delivery of large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) to brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is mediated by the L-type neutral amino acid transporter present in the membranes of the brain capillary endothelial cell. In experimental animals, the L-system transporter is saturated under normal conditions, and therefore an elevation in the plasma(More)
The possible effects of elevation of the plasma phenylalanine level secondary to the ingestion of aspartame on brain amino acid uptake in human subjects have been investigated by means of positron emission tomography (PET). 1-[11C]Aminocyclohexanecarboxylate [( 11C]ACHC) is a poorly metabolized synthetic amino acid that crosses the blood-brain barrier by(More)
BACKGROUND Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumour of the sympathetic nervous system, metastatic in half of the patients at diagnosis, with a high preponderance of osteomedullary disease, making accurate evaluation of metastatic sites and response to therapy challenging. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (mIBG), taken into cells via the norepinephrine transporter,(More)
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of registration positron emission tomography (PET) head images to the MRI-based brain atlas. The [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET images were normalized to the MRI-based brain atlas using nine registration algorithms including objective functions of ratio image uniformity (RIU), normalized mutual(More)
Nuclear medicine modalities use radiolabeled ligands that either follow metabolic pathways or act on cellular receptors. Thus, they permit functional imaging of physiological processes and help to localize sites such as tumors that harbor pathological events. The application of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands to the specific pathways of(More)
PREAMBLE The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) is an international scientific and professional organization founded in 1954 to promote the science, technology, and practical application of nuclear medicine. Its 16,000 members are physicians, technologists, and scientists specializing in the research and practice of nuclear medicine. In addition to(More)
Establishing the normative range of age-dependent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the developing brain is necessary for understanding regional quantitative analysis of positron emission tomography (PET) brain images in children and also to provide functional information on brain development. We analyzed head sections of FDG PET/computed tomography (CT)(More)
BACKGROUND Fluorine-18 ((18)F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is limited in its evaluation of brain tumors due to the high basal activity of the cerebral cortex and white matter. Carbon-11 methionine ((11)C MET) has little uptake under normal conditions. We prospectively investigated the uptake of (18)F FDG and (11)C MET PET in(More)
The purpose of this guideline is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting , and reporting the results of diuretic renography in children. Pelvicaliectasis (distension of the pelvicalyceal system) with or without megaureter (distension of the ureter) is the most common indication for radionuclide evaluation of the(More)
UNLABELLED In this study, we reported age-associated ranges of the regional cerebral (18)F-FDG uptake ratio in pediatric patients as a surrogate to normative data from healthy children. METHODS (18)F-FDG PET scans of 132 children and adolescents (age, 1-20 y) with non-central nervous system-related diseases and normal-appearing tracer distributions in the(More)