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The concept that intestinal microbial composition not only affects the health of the gut, but also influences centrally-mediated systems involved in mood, is supported by a growing body of literature. Despite the emergent interest in brain-gut communication and its possible role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as depression, particularly(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The aim of this study was to compare the response of symptoms and cytokine ratios in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with ingestion of probiotic preparations containing a lactobacillus or bifidobacterium strain. METHODS Seventy-seven subjects with IBS were randomized to receive either Lactobacillus salivarius UCC4331 or Bifidobacterium(More)
Host defence against infection requires a range of innate and adaptive immune responses that may lead to tissue damage. Such immune-mediated pathologies can be controlled with appropriate T regulatory (Treg) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of gut microbiota composition on Treg cellular activity and NF-kappaB activation(More)
The enteric flora comprises approximately 95% of the total number of cells in the human body and can elicit immune responses while protecting against microbial pathogens. However, the resident bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn(More)
BACKGROUND Probiotic bacteria exhibit a variety of properties, including immunomodulatory activity, which are unique to a particular strain. Thus, not all species will necessarily have the same therapeutic potential in a particular condition. We have preliminary evidence that Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 may have utility in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).(More)
BACKGROUND The enteric bacterial flora has been implicated in the pathogenesis of enterocolitis and colon cancer in C57BL/6 IL-10 knockout mice. Probiotic Lactobacilli modify the enteric flora and are thought to have a beneficial effect on enterocolitis. We conducted a controlled feeding trial in IL-10 knockout mice using the probiotic Lactobacillus(More)
Vancomycin, metronidazole, and the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 are active against a wide range of bacterial species, including Clostridium difficile. We demonstrate that, in a human distal colon model, the addition of each of the three antimicrobials resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of C. difficile. However, their therapeutic use in the(More)
The enteric flora comprise approximately 95% of the total number of cells in the human body and are capable of eliciting immune responses while also protecting against microbial pathogens. However, the resident bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic conditions such as inflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Prophylactic efficacy against colitis following lactobacillus consumption in interleukin 10 (IL-10) knockout (KO) mice has been reported. Whether this applies equally to other probiotic strains is unknown, and the mechanism is unclear. AIMS (1) To compare the effect of feeding Lactobacillus salivarius subspecies salivarius 433118 and(More)
BACKGROUND Recent reports suggest that the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and hepatic steatosis. OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine whether the fat composition of host tissues might be influenced by oral administration of commensal bifidobacteria previously shown by us to produce bioactive(More)