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Drug addiction is increasingly viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial drug use--when a drug is voluntarily taken because it has reinforcing, often hedonic, effects--through loss of control over this behavior, such that it becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Here we discuss evidence that these transitions depend on(More)
Emotions are multifaceted, but a key aspect of emotion involves the assessment of the value of environmental stimuli. This article reviews the many psychological representations, including representations of stimulus value, which are formed in the brain during Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning tasks. These representations may be related directly to(More)
We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting(More)
Impulsive choice is exemplified by choosing a small or poor reward that is available immediately, in preference to a larger but delayed reward. Impulsive choice contributes to drug addiction, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mania, and personality disorders, but its neuroanatomical basis is unclear. Here, we show that selective lesions of the(More)
The dopaminergic innervation of the nucleus accumbens is generally agreed to mediate the primary reinforcing and locomotor effects of psychostimulants, but there is less consensus on conditioned dopamine (DA) release during drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the neurochemical correlates of drug-seeking behavior under the control of a drug-associated cue(More)
The role in spatial divided and sustained attention of D1 and D2-like dopamine (DA) receptors in the rat prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was investigated in a five-choice serial reaction time task. Rats were trained to detect brief flashes of light (0.5-0.25 sec) presented randomly in a spatial array of five apertures. When performance stabilized,(More)
Dopamine release within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been associated with both the rewarding and locomotor-stimulant effects of abused drugs. The functions of the NAcc core and shell were investigated in mediating amphetamine-potentiated conditioned reinforcement and locomotion. Rats were initially trained to associate a neutral stimulus (Pavlovian CS)(More)
Dissociable effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of different regions of the rat neocortex, including medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, were investigated in a five-choice serial reaction time task that provides several indices of the accuracy and speed of attentional function. Whereas medial prefrontal cortical lesions impaired(More)
The effects of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the prefrontal cortex in monkeys were investigated on two cognitive tests of prefrontal function, spatial delayed response, and attentional set shifting. The latter test provided a componential analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test, a commonly used clinical test of frontal lobe function in man. Acquisition of a(More)
The organization and possible functions of basal forebrain and pontine cholinergic systems are reviewed. Whereas the basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal projections likely subserve a common electrophysiological function, e.g. to boost signal-to-noise ratios in cortical target areas, this function has different effects on psychological processes dependent(More)