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Although the improvement in WM performance with cholinergic enhancement was a nonsignificant trend in the current study (P ϭ 0.07), in a previous study (9) with a larger sample (n ϭ 13) the effect was highly significant (P Ͻ 0.001). In the current study, we analyzed RT data for six of our seven subjects because the behavioral data for one subject were(More)
Drug addiction is increasingly viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial drug use--when a drug is voluntarily taken because it has reinforcing, often hedonic, effects--through loss of control over this behavior, such that it becomes habitual and ultimately compulsive. Here we discuss evidence that these transitions depend on(More)
We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting(More)
Emotions are multifaceted, but a key aspect of emotion involves the assessment of the value of environmental stimuli. This article reviews the many psychological representations, including representations of stimulus value, which are formed in the brain during Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning tasks. These representations may be related directly to(More)
Five experiments examined the effects of destruction of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DNAB), arising in the locus coeruleus, both on brightness and spatial visual discrimination, and selective attention. An analogue o Leonard's 5-choice serial reaction task for human subjects was used. Hungry rats were trained to detect brief (0.5 sec) flashes of light(More)
Rationale: Inability to tolerate delays to reward is an important component of impulsive behaviour, and has been suggested to reflect dysfunction of dopamine systems. Objectives: The present experiments examined the effects of signalling a delayed, large reward on rats' ability to choose it over a small, immediate reward, and on the response to amphetamine,(More)
The role in spatial divided and sustained attention of D1 and D2-like dopamine (DA) receptors in the rat prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was investigated in a five-choice serial reaction time task. Rats were trained to detect brief flashes of light (0.5-0.25 sec) presented randomly in a spatial array of five apertures. When performance stabilized,(More)
Dissociable effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of different regions of the rat neocortex, including medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, were investigated in a five-choice serial reaction time task that provides several indices of the accuracy and speed of attentional function. Whereas medial prefrontal cortical lesions impaired(More)
Environmental stimuli that are reliably associated with the effects of many abused drugs, especially stimulants such as cocaine, can produce craving and relapse in abstinent human substance abusers. In animals, such cues can induce and maintain drug-seeking behaviour and also reinstate drug-seeking after extinction. Reducing the motivational effects of(More)
 A series of ten experiments examined the effects of profound central 5-HT depletion on attentional performance in the rat in the five-choice serial reaction time task, and also determined the effects of such depletion on responding affected by d-amphetamine and by selective dopamine receptor antagonists. Rats were trained to detect and locate brief visual(More)