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The application of all-atom force fields (and explicit or implicit solvent models) to protein homology-modeling tasks such as side-chain and loop prediction remains challenging both because of the expense of the individual energy calculations and because of the difficulty of sampling the rugged all-atom energy surface. Here we address this challenge for the(More)
The genome-wide identification of pairs of interacting proteins is an important step in the elucidation of cell regulatory mechanisms. Much of our present knowledge derives from high-throughput techniques such as the yeast two-hybrid assay and affinity purification, as well as from manual curation of experiments on individual systems. A variety of(More)
Crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters, show a molecule of bound substrate that is essentially exposed to the extracellular space but occluded from the cytoplasm. Thus, there must exist an alternate conformation for LeuT in which the substrate is accessible to the cytoplasm and a corresponding mechanism(More)
Many algorithms that compare protein structures can reveal similarities that suggest related biological functions, even at great evolutionary distances. Proteins with related function often exhibit differences in binding specificity, but few algorithms identify structural variations that effect specificity. To address this problem, we describe the(More)
Functional left/right asymmetry ("laterality") is a fundamental feature of many nervous systems, but only very few molecular correlates to functional laterality are known. At least two classes of chemosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are functionally lateralized. The gustatory neurons ASE left (ASEL) and ASE right (ASER) are two(More)
Clustered protocadherin proteins (α-, β-, and γ-Pcdhs) provide a high level of cell-surface diversity to individual vertebrate neurons, engaging in highly specific homophilic interactions to mediate important roles in mammalian neural circuit development. How Pcdhs bind homophilically through their extracellular cadherin (EC) domains among dozens of highly(More)
This article describes a number of algorithms that are designed to improve both the efficiency and accuracy of finite difference solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (the FDPB method) and to extend its range of application. The algorithms are incorporated in the DelPhi program. The first algorithm involves an efficient and accurate semianalytical(More)
Protocadherins are predominantly expressed in the nervous system, and constitute the largest subgroup within the cadherin superfamily. The recent structural elucidation of the amino-terminal cadherin domain in an archetypal protocadherin revealed unique and remarkable features: the lack of an interface for homophilic adhesiveness found in classical(More)