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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with stroke, plaque thickness, stenosis, ulceration, and adventitial inflammation. Conflicting data exist on whether calcification is a marker of plaque instability, and no data exist on adventitial calcification. Our goal was to determine whether adventitial calcification and soft plaque(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE MR imaging-detected carotid intraplaque hemorrhage indicates vulnerable plaque with high stroke risk. Angiotensin II stimulates intraplaque hemorrhage in animal models, and the angiotensin system is highly regulated by vitamin D. Our purpose was to determine whether low vitamin D levels predict carotid intraplaque hemorrhage in(More)
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