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Para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.2) is a flavoprotein involved in degradation of aromatic compounds, and it has become a model for enzymes involved in the oxygenation of a substrate. The chemical and kinetic mechanisms of this enzyme are described and integrated with an outline of the structure of the protein from crystallographic analysis. The(More)
Several fluorinated derivatives of p-hydroxybenzoate were synthesized and examined as substrates in the reaction catalyzed by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase. All the derivatives tested served as substrates, undergoing tightly coupled hydroxylation by molecular oxygen. Hydroxylation of the difluoro and tetrafluoro derivatives liberated stoichiometric amounts(More)
para-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase that catalyzes a reaction in two parts: reduction of the enzyme cofactor, FAD, by NADPH in response to binding p-hydroxybenzoate to the enzyme, then oxidation of reduced FAD by oxygen to form a hydroperoxide, which oxygenates p-hydroxybenzoate to form 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. These diverse(More)
Para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase inserts oxygen into substrates by means of the labile intermediate, flavin C(4a)-hydroperoxide. This reaction requires transient isolation of the flavin and substrate from the bulk solvent. Previous crystal structures have revealed the position of the substrate para-hydroxybenzoate during oxygenation but not how it enters(More)
para-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase catalyzes a two-step reaction that demands precise control of solvent access to the catalytic site. The first step of the reaction, reduction of flavin by NADPH, requires access to solvent. The second step, oxygenation of reduced flavin to a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide that transfers the hydroxyl group to the substrate,(More)
We report molecular analyses which identify cyanobacterial strains present in environmental samples. These analyses do not require the isolation and culture of strains. Identification of cyanobacteria used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the phycocyanin operon. Differentiation was either by restriction endonuclease digestion (restriction(More)
para-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase is a flavoprotein monooxygenase that catalyses a reaction in two parts: reduction of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in the enzyme by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) in response to binding p-hydroxybenzoate to the enzyme and oxidation of reduced FAD with oxygen to form a hydroperoxide, which(More)
Para-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.2) from Pseudomonas fluorescens is one of a group of flavoproteins which insert molecular oxygen into aromatic rings to form phenols. To determine the mechanism of oxygen insertion by this enzyme, an extensive study was made of the reaction with O2 of reduced enzyme in complex with various aromatic molecules.(More)
Flavoprotein monooxygenases are involved in a wide variety of biological processes including drug detoxification, biodegradation of aromatic compounds in the environment, biosynthesis of antibiotics and siderophores, and many others. The reactions use NAD(P)H and O2 as co-substrates and insert one atom of oxygen into the substrate. The flavin-dependent(More)
Cyanobacterial blooms are potential health hazards in water supply reservoirs. This paper reports analyses of a cyanobacterial bloom by use of PCR-based methods for direct detection and identification of strains present and determination of their toxigenicity. Serial samples from Malpas Dam, in the New England region of Australia, were analyzed during a(More)