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1. Spontaneous and evoked non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs were recorded from cerebellar granule cells in slices at approximately 24 and approximately 34 degrees C. The EPSC decay was fitted with the sum of two exponential functions. 2. The time courses of non-NMDA receptor deactivation and desensitization were determined with fast concentration jumps of(More)
In Aplysia sensory and motor neurons in culture, the contributions of the major classes of calcium current can be selectively examined while transmitter release and its modulation are examined. A slowly inactivating, dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium current does not contribute either to normal synaptic transmission or to any of three different forms of(More)
Neurotransmitter can modulate neuronal activity through a variety of second messengers that act on ion channels and other substrate proteins. The most commonly described effector mechanism for second messengers in neurons depends on protein phosphorylation mediated by one of three sets of kinases: the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Independent component analysis (ICA) can disentangle multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals into a number of artifacts and brain-related signals. However, the identification and interpretation of independent components is time-consuming and involves subjective decision making. We developed and evaluated a semi-automatic tool designed for(More)
Across-frequency processing by common interaural time delay (ITD) in spatial unmasking was investigated by measuring speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for high- and low-frequency bands of target speech presented against concurrent speech or a noise masker. Experiment 1 indicated that presenting one of these target bands with an ITD of +500 micros and the(More)
Sound localization is important for orienting and focusing attention and for segregating sounds from different sources in the environment. In humans, horizontal sound localization mainly relies on interaural differences in sound arrival time and sound level. Despite their perceptual importance, the neural processing of interaural time and level differences(More)
OBJECTIVE A systematic review was conducted to identify and quality assess how studies published since 1999 have measured and reported the usage of hearing aids in older adults. The relationship between usage and other dimensions of hearing aid outcome, age and hearing loss are summarised. DATA SOURCES Articles were identified through systematic searches(More)
The effect of interaural correlation (rho) on the loudness for noisebands was measured using a loudness-matching task in naive listeners. The task involved a sequence of loudness comparisons for which the intensity of one stimulus in a given comparison was varied using a one-up-one-down adaptive rule. The task provided an estimate of the level difference(More)