Barnett S. Kramer

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After long debate about the worth of screening for lung cancer, and even about the merits of doing a randomized trial to address the issue, initial results from the first large-scale randomized controlled trial ever to show a reduction in lung cancer mortality associated with screening were announced to the public last November 4. 1 The story behind this(More)
BACKGROUND Because randomized cancer screening trials are very expensive, observational cancer screening studies can play an important role in the early phases of screening evaluation. Periodic screening evaluation (PSE) is a methodology for estimating the reduction in population cancer mortality from data on subjects who receive regularly scheduled(More)
BACKGROUND The goal of most microarray studies is either the identification of genes that are most differentially expressed or the creation of a good classification rule. The disadvantage of the former is that it ignores the importance of gene interactions; the disadvantage of the latter is that it often does not provide a sufficient focus for further(More)
BACKGROUND Recently many long-term prospective studies have involved serial collection and storage of blood or tissue specimens. This has spurred nested case-control studies that involve testing some specimens for various markers that might predict cancer. Until now there has been little guidance in statistical design and analysis of these studies. (More)
BACKGROUND There is common belief among some medical researchers that if a potential surrogate endpoint is highly correlated with a true endpoint, then a positive (or negative) difference in potential surrogate endpoints between randomization groups would imply a positive (or negative) difference in unobserved true endpoints between randomization groups. We(More)
BACKGROUND If intervention A bests B in one randomized trial, and B bests C in another randomized trial, can one conclude that A is better than C? The problem was motivated by the planning of a randomized trial, where A is spiral-CT screening, B is x-ray screening, and C is no screening. On its surface, this would appear to be a straightforward application(More)
BACKGROUND There is experimental evidence from animal models favoring the notion that the disruption of interactions between stroma and epithelium plays an important role in the initiation of carcinogenesis. These disrupted interactions are hypothesized to be mediated by molecules, termed morphostats, which diffuse through the tissue to determine cell(More)
BACKGROUND The prevailing paradigm in cancer research is the somatic mutation theory that posits that cancer begins with a single mutation in a somatic cell followed by successive mutations. Much cancer research involves refining the somatic mutation theory with an ever increasing catalog of genetic changes. The problem is that such research may miss(More)
The concept of early detection of cancer holds great promise and intuitive appeal. However, powerful biases can mislead clinicians when evaluating the efficacy of screening tests by clinical observation alone. Selection bias, lead-time bias, length-biased sampling, and overdiagnosis are counterintuitive concepts with critical implications for(More)