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We studied the effects of exercise on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES). Subjects performed 30-second periods of isometric exercise of the extensor carpi radialis until fatigue, which was defined as the inability to maintain half maximum force. The amplitude of MEPs to TMS(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) causes the corticospinal system to become refractory to subsequent stimuli for up to 200 ms. We examined the phenomenon of paired pulse inhibition with TMS under conditions of rest, ongoing voluntary activation (isometric force generation), and at variable delays following activation (postactivation) of the wrist(More)
F-waves are known to be highly sensitive to changes in the excitatory state of the spinal cord. This paper describes the effects of subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulation on the F-waves evoked in hand and foot muscles. In the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, the F-wave was significantly enhanced when the cortical stimulus was given with a delay(More)
Twenty patients with hemiplegia and 13 patients with motor neurone disease were studied with electrical and magnetic transcranial stimulation. Motor evoked potentials were recorded from the biceps, thenar and tibialis anterior muscles. In both groups of patients magnetic stimulation with a Novametrix stimulator revealed fewer abnormalities than electrical(More)
To assess the excitability of the motor system, we studied 11 patients with task-specific dystonia and 11 age-matched normal subjects. The dominant side was affected in nine of the patients. We delivered transcranial magnetic stimuli at different stimulus intensities and with different levels of muscle facilitation to the side contralateral to the side of(More)
Patients with upper limb dystonia have abnormal reciprocal inhibition between flexor and extensor forearm muscles. To see whether botulinum toxin treatment alters segmental motor system function, we studied reciprocal inhibition between forearm flexor and extensor muscles, before and after botulinum toxin injection in forearm muscles in 12 patients with(More)
The "distal myopathies" include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sporadic disorders. Two of the recessive disorders are considered to be definitive entities: Miyoshi's myopathy, which has an early adult onset and first involves the calf muscles, and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. We here describe the cases of two sisters and compare them(More)
We studied the effects of exercise on motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 18 normal (control) subjects, 12 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, and 10 depressed patients. Subjects performed repeated sets of isometric exercise of the extensor carpi radialis muscle until they were unable to maintain half(More)
In six Centers belonging to the Italian Movement Disorder Study Group, the efficacy of botulinum toxin treatment was evaluated in an open collaborative study in 251 patients with focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. The percentage of functional improvement ranged from 66% to 81% in patients with blepharospasm, from 40% to 51% in patients with spasmodic(More)
We studied the effect of botulinum toxin A injection on the abnormal presynaptic phase of reciprocal inhibition between forearm antagonist muscles in patients with essential tremor. Ten patients with essential tremor were investigated before and 1 month after botulinum injection. Reciprocal inhibition was studied by conditioning the H reflex in forearm(More)