Learn More
A prospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between vaginal colonization with lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and sexually transmitted diseases in a population of sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. In total, 657 HIV-1-seronegative women were enrolled and followed at(More)
BACKGROUND Factors that influence shedding of HIV-1 infected cells in cervical and vaginal secretions may be important determinants of sexual and vertical transmission of the virus. We investigated whether hormonal contraceptive use, vitamin A deficiency, and other variables were risk factors for cervical and vaginal shedding of HIV-infected cells. (More)
BACKGROUND Despite a substantial disease burden, there is little descriptive epidemiology of acute pneumonia in sub-Saharan Africa. We did this study to define the aetiology of acute pneumonia, to estimate mortality at convalescence, and to analyse mortality risk-factors. METHODS We studied 281 Kenyan adults who presented to two public hospitals (one(More)
Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) results in frequent transmission of infection to sexual partners and neonates. In a cross-sectional study, cervical shedding of HSV DNA was detected in 43 (17%) cervical swab samples from 273 women seropositive for HSV-1, HSV-2, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Cervical shedding of HSV was(More)
Cervical and vaginal secretions from 17 women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were evaluated daily through the course of one menstrual cycle for HIV-1 DNA (21-31 visits per woman). HIV-1-infected cells were detected in 207 (46%) of 450 endocervical swabs and 74 (16%) of 449 vaginal swabs. There was considerable variability in the(More)
If human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines are to be highly effective, it is essential to understand the virologic factors that contribute to HIV-1 transmission. It is likely that transmission is determined, in part, by the genotype or phenotype (or both) of infectious virus present in the index case, which in turn will influence the quantity(More)
  • 1