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Plague is a pandemic human invasive disease caused by the bacterial agent Yersinia pestis. We here report a comparison of 17 whole genomes of Y. pestis isolates from global sources. We also screened a global collection of 286 Y. pestis isolates for 933 SNPs using Sequenom MassArray SNP typing. We conducted phylogenetic analyses on this sequence variation(More)
The association of historical plague pandemics with Yersinia pestis remains controversial, partly because the evolutionary history of this largely monomorphic bacterium was unknown. The microevolution of Y. pestis was therefore investigated by three different multilocus molecular methods, targeting genomewide synonymous SNPs, variation in number of tandem(More)
A two-dimensional structural model was devised for the Opc outer membrane protein invasin which contains 10 transmembrane strands and five surface-exposed loops. One continuous epitope recognized by three monoclonal antibodies was localized to the tip of loop 2 by synthetic peptides and site-directed mutagenesis while a second, discontinuous epitope(More)
A total of 64 Escherichia coli strains of the O1 serogroup were tested for the migration pattern of their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. O1:K1 and O1:K51 strains of the OMP5 outer membrane protein pattern possessed LPS with a doublet pattern (O1A1) or the lowermost band of the O1A1 doublet (O1A2).(More)
Variable properties among Escherichia coli isolates include serotype, electrophoretic migration of major outer membrane proteins, metabolic properties, production of hemolysin or colicin or both, and plasmid content. These characteristics were compared in E. coli strains of capsular types K1, K5, K92, and K100 and in non-encapsulated isolates. The 234(More)
BACKGROUND The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are(More)
The pathogenic species Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae cause dramatically different diseases despite strong relatedness at the genetic and biochemical levels. N. meningitidis can cross the blood-brain barrier to cause meningitis and has a propensity for toxic septicemia unlike N. gonorrhoeae. We previously used subtractive hybridization to(More)
Our understanding of basic evolutionary processes in bacteria is still very limited. For example, multiple recent dating estimates are based on a universal inter-species molecular clock rate, but that rate was calibrated using estimates of geological dates that are no longer accepted. We therefore estimated the short-term rates of mutation and recombination(More)
A representative collection of meningococci was isolated from cases and healthy carriers in The Gambia between 1982 and 1988, during and after an epidemic of meningococcal meningitis. These bacteria were subjected to a clonal analysis. All serogroup A bacteria from both cases and carriers were of one clone (A IV-1). Several unrelated clones were observed(More)
The sequence diversity of 45 Opa outer membrane proteins from Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria sicca, and Neisseria flava indicates that horizontal genetic exchange of opa alleles has been rare between these species. A two-dimensional structural model containing four surface-exposed loops was constructed based on rules derived from(More)