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Experimental inflammation produced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant results in local sensory hypersensitivity and up-regulates the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in the primary sensory neurons innervating the inflamed tissue. The inflammation also elevates nerve growth factor levels in the skin.(More)
1. Peripheral inflammation is characterized by heightened pain sensitivity. This hyperalgesia is the consequence of the release of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and growth factors. A key participant is the induction of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). 2. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been shown(More)
Lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin (ET), is a major constituent of the outer membrane of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. ET is known to cause a number of pathophysiological changes associated with illness including inflammatory pain. The aim of this study is to characterize the peripheral hyperalgesia induced by ET in rats and mice.(More)
The signalling mechanisms in oxidative stress mediated by cytokines in the perinatal alveolar epithelium are not well known. In an in vitro model of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells, we investigated the profile of cytokines in response to ascending Deltap O(2)regimen (oxyexcitation). The peak of TNF-alpha (4 h) preceded IL-1beta and IL-6 (6-9 h),(More)
Exposure to mid range ultrat violet radiations (UVBs) has been shown to produce systemic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice [Saadé, N.E., Nasr, I.W., Massaad, C.A., Safieh-Garabedian, B., Jabbur, S.J., Kanaan, S.A., 2000. Modulation of ultraviolet-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation by interleukins 10 and 13. Br. J. Pharmacol. 131, 1317-1324].(More)
The sympathetic system (SNS) is considered to be a major component of the neurogenic contribution to inflammation and hyperalgesia. We have investigated the role of the SNS in the local inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl) injections of bacterial endotoxin (ET). Treatment of rats with an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine, 0.25-1 mg/kg,(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in mice has been shown to produce hyperalgesia and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thymulin on CL-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation. Daily treatment with thymulin (1, 100, and 1000 ng/ip) produced dose-dependent(More)
A new model of endotoxin (ET)-induced hyperalgesia has been used to test the effects of four classes of drugs in rats and mice. Hyperalgesia was assessed by paw pressure (PP), hot plate (HP) and tail flick (TF) tests. Each drug was injected intraperitoneally 24 and 12 h before ET injection and just before each pain test at 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after ET(More)
1. Intraplantar endotoxin (ET) injection (1.25 micrograms) into the hind paw of rats resulted in a localized inflammatory hyperalgesia, as assessed by paw pressure (PP), paw immersion (PI), tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests. 2. ET injection resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and nerve growth factor(More)
The therapeutic immunopharmacological potential of glutathione in the alveolar epithelium is not well characterized. We developed an in vitro model of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells to investigate the effect of redox disequilibrium on chemioxyexcitation (DeltapO(2)/ROS) induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Buthionine sulfoximine, an(More)