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Experimental inflammation produced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant results in local sensory hypersensitivity and up-regulates the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in the primary sensory neurons innervating the inflamed tissue. The inflammation also elevates nerve growth factor levels in the skin.(More)
Exposure to mid range ultrat violet radiations (UVBs) has been shown to produce systemic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice [Saadé, N.E., Nasr, I.W., Massaad, C.A., Safieh-Garabedian, B., Jabbur, S.J., Kanaan, S.A., 2000. Modulation of ultraviolet-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation by interleukins 10 and 13. Br. J. Pharmacol. 131, 1317-1324].(More)
1. Intraplantar endotoxin (ET) injection (1.25 micrograms) into the hind paw of rats resulted in a localized inflammatory hyperalgesia, as assessed by paw pressure (PP), paw immersion (PI), tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests. 2. ET injection resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and nerve growth factor(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in mice has been shown to produce hyperalgesia and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thymulin on CL-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation. Daily treatment with thymulin (1, 100, and 1000 ng/ip) produced dose-dependent(More)
The therapeutic immunopharmacological potential of glutathione in the alveolar epithelium is not well characterized. We developed an in vitro model of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells to investigate the effect of redox disequilibrium on chemioxyexcitation (DeltapO(2)/ROS) induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Buthionine sulfoximine, an(More)
Cytokines, peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as their receptors/ligands, are endogenous to the brain, endocrine and immune systems. These shared ligands and receptors are used as a common chemical language for communication within and between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Such communication suggests an immunoregulatory role for the(More)
In the endotoxin-induced inflammation, interleukin-10 reduced significantly, and in a dose-dependent manner, the inflammatory pain as assessed by mechanical and thermal tests. The levels of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)alpha and NGF were upregulated at 1.5 h whereas those of IL-1beta at 6 h after ET injection. IL-10 downregulated the levels of TNFalpha (from(More)
Lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin (ET), is a major constituent of the outer membrane of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. ET is known to cause a number of pathophysiological changes associated with illness including inflammatory pain. The aim of this study is to characterize the peripheral hyperalgesia induced by ET in rats and mice.(More)
The sympathetic system (SNS) is considered to be a major component of the neurogenic contribution to inflammation and hyperalgesia. We have investigated the role of the SNS in the local inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl) injections of bacterial endotoxin (ET). Treatment of rats with an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine, 0.25-1 mg/kg,(More)
Levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat hindpaw skin, measured with a sensitive two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, show two peaks during normal development. The first (57 +/- 5 pg mg-1) occurs at embryonic days (E) 18-20 and coincides with the arrival of axon terminals into the hindpaw skin. The second, larger peak (132 +/- 10 pg mg-1), occurs(More)