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Experimental inflammation produced by an intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant results in local sensory hypersensitivity and up-regulates the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide in the primary sensory neurons innervating the inflamed tissue. The inflammation also elevates nerve growth factor levels in the skin.(More)
1. Peripheral inflammation is characterized by heightened pain sensitivity. This hyperalgesia is the consequence of the release of inflammatory mediators, cytokines and growth factors. A key participant is the induction of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). 2. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been shown(More)
Lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin (ET), is a major constituent of the outer membrane of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. ET is known to cause a number of pathophysiological changes associated with illness including inflammatory pain. The aim of this study is to characterize the peripheral hyperalgesia induced by ET in rats and mice.(More)
Cytokines, peptide hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as their receptors/ligands, are endogenous to the brain, endocrine and immune systems. These shared ligands and receptors are used as a common chemical language for communication within and between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Such communication suggests an immunoregulatory role for the(More)
The signalling mechanisms in oxidative stress mediated by cytokines in the perinatal alveolar epithelium are not well known. In an in vitro model of fetal alveolar type II epithelial cells, we investigated the profile of cytokines in response to ascending Deltap O(2)regimen (oxyexcitation). The peak of TNF-alpha (4 h) preceded IL-1beta and IL-6 (6-9 h),(More)
Exposure to mid range ultrat violet radiations (UVBs) has been shown to produce systemic inflammation and hyperalgesia in mice [Saadé, N.E., Nasr, I.W., Massaad, C.A., Safieh-Garabedian, B., Jabbur, S.J., Kanaan, S.A., 2000. Modulation of ultraviolet-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation by interleukins 10 and 13. Br. J. Pharmacol. 131, 1317-1324].(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) are cytokines which have known immunological effects. An elevated level of NGF has been reported in certain autoimmune diseases, whereas TGF-beta2 is an immunosuppressor which is known to play a role in regulating cell proliferation. A role of this cytokine has been proposed in the(More)
The sympathetic system (SNS) is considered to be a major component of the neurogenic contribution to inflammation and hyperalgesia. We have investigated the role of the SNS in the local inflammatory pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl) injections of bacterial endotoxin (ET). Treatment of rats with an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (phentolamine, 0.25-1 mg/kg,(More)
1. Intraplantar endotoxin (ET) injection (1.25 micrograms) into the hind paw of rats resulted in a localized inflammatory hyperalgesia, as assessed by paw pressure (PP), paw immersion (PI), tail flick (TF) and hot plate (HP) tests. 2. ET injection resulted in a significant elevation in the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and nerve growth factor(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in mice has been shown to produce hyperalgesia and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-1beta and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of thymulin on CL-induced hyperalgesia and cytokine upregulation. Daily treatment with thymulin (1, 100, and 1000 ng/ip) produced dose-dependent(More)