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We studied rod function in the chicken by recording corneal electroretinograms (ERGs). The following experiments were performed to demonstrate rod function during daytime: (1) determining the dark-adaptation function; (2) measuring the spectral sensitivity by a a-b-wave amplitude criterion in response to monochromatic flickering light of different(More)
The actions of dopamine are mediated by 5 or more receptor subtypes, any of which may be coupled by G-proteins to adenylate cyclase (D1-family: stimulatory, D2-family: inhibitory or no action). Postnatal ocular growth in the chick is a vision-dependent mechanism which involves D2-type receptors in either the retina or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).(More)
Studies of form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in animal models have shown that postnatal ocular growth is regulated by the quality of patterned images on the retina. One of the major challenges in myopia research is to identify the biochemical mechanisms which translate retinal visual responses into signals that regulate scleral growth. Dopamine (DA) has been(More)
Rpe65(-/-) mice produce minimal amounts of 11-cis-retinal, the ligand necessary for the formation of photosensitive visual pigments. Therefore, the apoprotein opsin in these animals has not been exposed to its normal ligand. The Rpe65(-/-) mice contain less than 0.1% of wild type levels of rhodopsin. Mass spectrometric analysis of opsin from Rpe65(-/-) mice(More)
Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in the chick is a popular model for studying the postnatal regulation of ocular growth. Using this model, we have shown previously that dopamine and FGF-2 can counteract the effects of form-deprivation, thereby producing emmetropia. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the emmetropizing effects of flickering(More)
Form deprivation myopia in chickens is a widely accepted model to study visually-regulated postnatal ocular growth. Recently we showed that basic fibroblast growth factor-2 provides a "stop" signal for the growing eye. To understand further its action, we have localized basic fibroblast growth factor-2 and its low- and high-affinity receptors in the chicken(More)
In this study, the possible role of the retinal enkephalin system in form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in the chick eye was investigated. Daily intravitreal injection of the nonspecific opiate antagonist naloxone blocked development of FDM in a dose-dependent manner, while injection of the opiate agonist morphine had no effect at any dose tested. The ED50 for(More)
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