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AI research in qualitative modeling makes possible new approaches to teaching people about science and technology. We are exploring the implications of this work for the design of intelligent learning environments. The domain of application is electrical circuits, but the approach can be generalized to other subjects. Our prototype instructional system is(More)
To develop lifelong learning skills, we argue that students need to learn how to learn via inquiry and understand the sociocognitive and metacognitive processes that are involved. We illustrate how software could play a central role in enabling students to develop such expertise. Our hypothesis is that sociocognitive systems, such as those needed for(More)
One promising educational application of computers derives from their ability to dynamically simulate physical phenomena. Such systems permit students to explore, for instance, electrical circuit behavior or particle dynamics. In the past, these simulations have been based upon quantitative models. However, recent work in artificial intelligence has created(More)
Acknowledgments I would like to thank the eighth grade students who participated in this research. Without them, this dissertation would not exist. Their teacher, Doug Kirkpatrick, has helped me in more ways than I could ever nameÑespecially by being such a wonderful teacher and role model. I am grateful to my advisor, Marcia Linn, whose insight and(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of mavrilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody targeting the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-α, in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating phase I study in subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory and coagulation processes are both affected in meningococcaemia. Severe acquired protein-C deficiency in meningococcaemia is usually associated with substantial mortality: in survivors, skin grafts, amputation, and end-organ failure are not uncommon. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant and also has important anti-inflammatory(More)
To develop the expertise needed for lifelong learning, we argue that students need to reify, reflect on, and improve their cognitive, social, and metacognitive processes. Introducing software advisors that incorporate models of such processes has the potential to facilitate students' sociocognitive and metacognitive development. To this end, we created(More)
Fibrosis can be an undesired consequence of activated cellular immune responses. The purpose of this work was to determine whether CD40 ligation and the pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-4 interact in regulating fibroblast proliferation and collagen production, and, if so, the mechanisms used. This study found that the combination of IL-4 and ligation of CD40 on the(More)
We introduce a method for promoting reflective conversations during collaborative work which enables participants to explore their cognitive goals and processes and thereby develop a metacognitive understanding of their practice. This method, termed "cognitive facilitation," seeks to provide a conceptual and linguistic basis for metacognitive reflection by(More)