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The trace biogenic amine tyramine is present in the nervous systems of animals ranging in complexity from nematodes to mammals. Tyramine is synthesized from tyrosine by the enzyme tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), a member of the aromatic amino acid family, but this enzyme has not been identified in Drosophila or in higher animals. To further clarify the roles(More)
Sexual orientation and courtship behavior in Drosophila are regulated by fruitless (fru), the first gene in a branch of the sex-determination hierarchy functioning specifically in the central nervous system (CNS). The phenotypes of new fru mutants encompass nearly all aspects of male sexual behavior. Alternative splicing of fru transcripts produces(More)
Few mutations link well defined behaviors with individual neurons and the activity of specific genes. In Drosophila, recent evidence indicates the presence of a doublesex-independent pathway controlling sexual behavior and neuronal differentiation. We have identified a gene, dissatisfaction (dsf), that affects sex-specific courtship behaviors and neural(More)
Several features of male reproductive behavior are under the neural control of fruitless (fru) in Drosophila melanogaster. This gene is known to influence courtship steps prior to mating, due to the absence of attempted copulation in the behavioral repertoire of most types of fru-mutant males. However, certain combinations of fru mutations allow for(More)
Robust innate behaviours are attractive systems for genetically dissecting how environmental cues are perceived and integrated to generate complex behaviours. During courtship, Drosophila males engage in a series of innate, stereotyped behaviours that are coordinated by specific sensory cues. However, little is known about the specific neural substrates(More)
A common feature of many human neurodegenerative diseases is the accumulation of insoluble ubiquitin-containing protein aggregates in the CNS. Although Drosophila has been helpful in understanding several human neurodegenerative disorders, a loss-of-function mutation has not been identified that leads to insoluble CNS protein aggregates. The study of(More)
The ultrastructural features of murine vallate taste bud cells and their associated synapses have been examined in thin and thick sections with conventional transmission electron microscopy and high-voltage electron microscopy. Computer-assisted reconstructions from serial sections were utilized to aid in visualization of taste bud cell-nerve fiber(More)
as well as more general aspects † Department of Zoology of animal existence such as locomotion, flying, feeding, 3029 Cordley Hall and drinking (for review: Carlson, 1998). A broader defi-Oregon State University nition of " behavior " might also include homeostatic Corvallis, Oregon 97331 mechanisms such as maintenance of balance, respira-‡ Department of(More)
The fruitless (fru) gene of Drosophila produces both sex-specifically and non-sex-specifically spliced transcripts. Male-specific fru products are believed to regulate male courtship. To further an understanding of this gene's behavioral role, we examined the central nervous system (CNS) for temporal, spatial, and sexually dimorphic expression patterns of(More)
A multibranched hierarchy of regulatory genes controls all aspects of somatic sexual development in Drosophila melanogaster. One branch of this hierarchy is headed by the fruitless (fru) gene and functions in the central nervous system, where it is necessary for male courtship behavior as well as the differentiation of a male-specific abdominal structure,(More)