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Optogenetic tools enable examination of how specific cell types contribute to brain circuit functions. A long-standing question is whether it is possible to independently activate two distinct neural populations in mammalian brain tissue. Such a capability would enable the study of how different synapses or pathways interact to encode information in the(More)
Group I introns are found in organellar genomes, in the genomes of eubacteria and phages, and in nuclear-encoded rRNAs. The origin and distribution of nuclear-encoded rRNA group I introns are not understood. To elucidate their evolutionary relationships, we analyzed diverse nuclear-encoded small-subunit rRNA group I introns including nine sequences from the(More)
The prasinophytes comprise a morphologically heterogeneous assembly of mostly marine flagellates and coccoid taxa, which represent an important component of the nano- and picoplankton, and have previously figured prominently in discussions about the origin and phylogeny of the green plants. To evaluate their putative basal position in the Viridiplantae and(More)
We report the isolation of striated flagellar roots from the Prasinophycean green alga Tetraselmis striata using sedimentation in gradients of sucrose and flotation on gradients of colloidal silica. PAGE in the presence of 0.1% SDS demonstrates that striated flagellar roots are composed of a number of polypeptides, the most predominant one being a protein(More)
The nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences were determined forGenicularia spirotaenia, Mesotaenium caldariorum, andStaurastrum spec. (Zygnematales) to elucidate the evolutionary position of these green algae. Results of neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony phylogenetic analyses support a monophyletic origin of theZygnematales within(More)
The 1,000 plants (1KP) project is an international multi-disciplinary consortium that has generated transcriptome data from over 1,000 plant species, with exemplars for all of the major lineages across the Viridiplantae (green plants) clade. Here, we describe how to access the data used in a phylogenomics analysis of the first 85 species, and how to(More)
The Zygnematales (Charophyta) contain a group-I intron (subgroup ICl) within their nuclear-encoded small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) coding region. This intron, which is inserted after position 1506 (relative to the SSU rDNA ofEscherichia coli), is proposed to have been vertically inherited since the origin of the Zygnematales approximately 350–400(More)
A rapid, Ca2+-dependent change in the angle between basal bodies (up to 180 degrees) is associated with light-induced reversal of swimming direction (the "photophobic" response) in a number of flagellated green algae. In isolated, detergent-extracted, reactivated flagellar apparatus complexes of Spermatozopsis similis, axonemal beat form conversion to the(More)
A short cylindrical pocket arises as an infolding from the ventral surface of the reservoir near the canal in several species ofEuglena (E. mutabilis, E. gracilis strain T,E. spec.). The structure is linked to a band of microtubules which is shown to be identical to the ventral flagellar root of the euglenoid flagellar root system. An absolute configuration(More)