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Highly reactive oxygen species that are formed during normal metabolism and under conditions of oxidative stress are able to oxidize proteins or convert lipid and carbohydrate derivatives to compounds that react with functional groups on proteins. Among other changes, these ROS-mediated reactions lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, which(More)
Cysteine and methionine are the two sulfur-containing residues normally found in proteins. Cysteine residues function in the catalytic cycle of many enzymes, and they can form disulfide bonds that contribute to protein structure. In contrast, the specific functions of methionine residues are not known. We propose that methionine residues constitute an(More)
For Deinococcus radiodurans and other bacteria which are extremely resistant to ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, and desiccation, a mechanistic link exists between resistance, manganese accumulation, and protein protection. We show that ultrafiltered, protein-free preparations of D. radiodurans cell extracts prevent protein oxidation at massive(More)
Oxidation of proteins by reactive oxygen species is associated with aging, oxidative stress, and many diseases. Although free and protein-bound methionine residues are particularly sensitive to oxidation to methionine sulfoxide derivatives, these oxidations are readily repaired by the action of methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA). To gain a better(More)
The yeast peptide-methionine sulfoxide reductase (MsrA) was overexpressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae null mutant of msrA by using a high-copy plasmid harboring the msrA gene and its promoter. The resulting strain had about 25-fold higher MsrA activity than its parent strain. When exposed to either hydrogen peroxide, paraquat, or(More)
A gene homologous to methionine sulfoxide reductase (msrA) was identified as the predicted ORF (cosmid 9379) in chromosome V of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein of 184 amino acids. The corresponding protein has been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant yeast MsrA possessed the same substrate specificity as(More)
Treatment of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) with peroxynitrite leads to nitration of some tyrosine residues and conversion of some methionine residues to methionine sulfoxide (MSOX) residues. Nitration, but not MSOX formation, is stimulated by Fe-EDTA. In the absence of Fe-EDTA, nitration of only one tyrosine residue per subunit of(More)
Almost all forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) oxidize methionine residues of proteins to a mixture of the R- and S-isomers of methionine sulfoxide. Because organisms contain methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr's) that can catalyze the thioredoxin-dependent reduction of the sulfoxides back to methionine, it was proposed that the cyclic(More)
Cysteine and methionine are the two sulfur-containing residues normally found in proteins. Cysteine residues function in the catalytic cycle of many enzymes, and they form disulfide bonds which contribute to protein structure. In contrast, the key functions of methionine residues are not known. We propose that methionine residues constitute an important(More)