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Infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by monocytes is a characteristic of many non-malignant disease processes, although the signals regulating such traffic are unclear. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other inflammatory cytokines have been shown to elicit production of monocyte chemoattractant activity in glioma cells, but the regulation of such(More)
We studied the effect of interferons on the expression of class II histocompatibility (HLA-DR) antigens by cultured adult human astrocytes. Cultures were derived from brain tissue resected for surgical treatment of intractable epilepsy. Cultured astrocytes did not spontaneously display HLA-DR antigen as determined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry(More)
Patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) display impaired surfactant clearance, foamy, lipid-filled alveolar macrophages, and increased cholesterol metabolites within the lung. Neutralizing autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are also present, resulting in virtual GM-CSF deficiency. We investigated ABCG1 and(More)
We previously reported that interleukin-4 (IL-4) inhibited proliferation of a human astrocytic cell line derived from non-neoplastic adult cortex. To determine whether this effect was receptor-associated and/or limited to only non-neoplastic astrocytes, we examined IL-4 responsiveness and receptor expression in human astrocytic cell lines derived from three(More)
Little is known about the pathogenesis and subsequent cellular biologic behaviour of human cerebral vascular malformations. Innovative therapeutic strategies will depend on more fundamental understanding of structural and functional lesion biology. We have freeze-processed four specimens of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), two cavernous malformations (CM),(More)
Four different human astrocytic cell lines established from either epilepsy surgical specimens or cerebral white matter obtained during thalamotomy for tremor in a patient with multiple sclerosis were characterized using morphologic analysis, ultrastructural attributes, growth characteristics, and immunocytochemical analysis. Immunocytochemical(More)
Sarcoidosis, a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown cause, has been linked to several environmental risk factors, among which are some that may favor carbon nanotube formation. Using gene array data, we initially observed that bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from sarcoidosis patients displayed elevated mRNA of the transcription factor, Twist1, among(More)
Two different human astrocytic cell lines derived from adult epilepsy surgical specimens were exposed in vitro to concentrations of 1-100 ng/ml recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Results indicated dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis and proliferation. Both of these effects were abrogated by treatment with monoclonal antibody(More)
Malignant gliomas are the most common intracranial tumors and are considered incurable. Therefore, exploration of novel therapeutic modalities is essential. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that is detected in the vast majority of malignant gliomas but not in normal brain tissues. We, therefore, hypothesized that telomerase inhibition could be a(More)
Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the B-lymphocyte antigen CD20, has shown promise in several autoimmune disorders. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an autoimmune disorder characterised by autoantibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). An open-label, proof-of-concept phase II clinical trial was conducted(More)