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OBJECTIVES To describe relative hazards in sectors of the beryllium industry, risk factors of beryllium disease and sensitisation related to work process were sought in a beryllium manufacturing plant producing pure metal, oxide, alloys, and ceramics. METHODS All 646 active employees were interviewed; beryllium sensitisation was ascertained with the(More)
Surfactant accumulates in alveolar macrophages of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) knockout (KO) mice and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) patients with a functional loss of GM-CSF resulting from neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody. Alveolar macrophages from PAP patients and GM-CSF KO mice are de-ficient in peroxisome(More)
Infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by monocytes is a characteristic of many non-malignant disease processes, although the signals regulating such traffic are unclear. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and other inflammatory cytokines have been shown to elicit production of monocyte chemoattractant activity in glioma cells, but the regulation of such(More)
BACKGROUND Dysfunctional immune responses characterize sarcoidosis, but the status of cathelicidin, a potent immunoregulatory and antimicrobial molecule, has not been established in clinical disease activity. METHODS Alveolar macrophage cathelicidin expression was determined in biopsy-proven sarcoidosis patients classified clinically as 'severe'(More)
Lung granulomas are associated with numerous conditions, including inflammatory disorders, exposure to environmental pollutants, and infection. Osteopontin is a chemotactic cytokine produced by macrophages, and is implicated in extracellular matrix remodeling. Furthermore, osteopontin is up-regulated in granulomatous disease, and osteopontin null mice(More)
Many of the actions and receptor components of interleukin-13 (IL-13), a pleiotrophic cytokine with immunotherapeutic potential, are shared with IL-4. Because human low-grade astrocytoma cells express IL-4 receptors and their growth is arrested by IL-4, we speculated that IL-13 sensitivity and receptor expression might also be present. The purpose of the(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-activated, nuclear transcription factor that regulates genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, inflammation, and other pathways. The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is essential for lung homeostasis and is thought to(More)
Autoimmune inner ear disease is an uncommon but distinct clinical entity. Our ignorance of the immune mediating pathways, need of further animal model experimentation, variability of laboratory test results and of patient treatment responses illustrate how poorly we understand this disorder. The purpose of this review is to compare practical vs theoretical(More)
A patient presented with granulomatous lung disease associated with the pulmonary deposition of various metallic particles. To evaluate the relation between the metallic dust and the granulomatous process, lymphocyte transformation tests to aluminium sulphate, titanium chloride, beryllium sulphate, and nickel sulphate were performed. A lymphocyte(More)
Immune inner ear disease is a relatively new and distinct clinical entity that produces unexplained, rapidly progressive, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The diagnosis is based on clinical manifestations, positive immune laboratory testing, and beneficial response to a trial of corticosteroids. Immune laboratory tests are used to confirm a presumptive(More)