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Most cortical interneurons are generated in the subpallial ganglionic eminences and migrate tangentially to their final destinations in the neocortex. Within the cortex, interneurons follow mainly stereotype routes in the subventricular zone/intermediate zone (SVZ/IZ) and in the marginal zone. It has been suggested that interactions between invading(More)
Directional collective migration is now a widely recognized mode of migration during embryogenesis and cancer. However, how a cluster of cells responds to chemoattractants is not fully understood. Neural crest cells are among the most motile cells in the embryo, and their behavior has been likened to malignant invasion. Here, we show that neural crest cells(More)
The chemokine CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling system is important for the regulation of neuron migration in the developing forebrain. In particular it is crucial for correct distribution of Cajal-Retzius cells and migration of cortical interneurons. Here we investigated the expression of CXCR7, the second receptor for CXCL12, in comparison to CXCR4. We found that(More)
The chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR4 regulate the development and the function of the hematopoietic system and control morphogenesis of distinct brain areas. Here, we demonstrate that inactivation of CXCR4 results in a massive loss of spinal cord motoneurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons and, subsequently, in a reduced innervation of the(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), neurons in addition to inflammatory cells are now considered to mediate disease origin and progression. So far, molecular and cellular mechanisms of neuronal MS contributions are poorly understood. Herein we analyzed whether neuron-restricted signaling by the neuroprotective transcription factor serum response factor (SRF)(More)
Mice deficient for the chemokine receptor CXCR4 show premature translocation of granule cell neuroblasts from their germinal zone into the nascent cerebellum [Y.-R. Zuo et al. (1998) Nature, 393, 595-599]. Here, we used CXCR4-null mice to analyse the early development of cerebellar cortical inhibitory interneurons and pontine neurons which, in the adult,(More)
BACKGROUND Leukocyte migration is essential for effective host defense against invading pathogens and during immune homeostasis. A hallmark of the regulation of this process is the presentation of chemokines in gradients stimulating leukocyte chemotaxis via cognate chemokine receptors. For efficient migration, receptor responsiveness must be maintained(More)
CONTEXT Congenital leptin deficiency is a very rare cause of severe early-onset obesity. We recently characterized a mutation in the leptin gene (p.D100Y), which was associated with detectable leptin levels and bioinactivity of the hormone. CASE DESCRIPTION We now describe two siblings, a 9-year-old girl and a 6-year-old boy with severe early-onset(More)
Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host response to infection. For its clinical course, host genetic factors are important and rare genomic variants are suspected to contribute. We sequenced the exomes of 59 Greek and 15 German patients with bacterial sepsis divided into two groups with extremely different disease courses.(More)
CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling controls multiple physiological processes and its dysregulation is associated with cancers and inflammatory diseases. To discover as-yet-unknown endogenous ligands of CXCR4, we screened a blood-derived peptide library for inhibitors of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains. This approach identified a 16 amino acid fragment of serum albumin as an(More)