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The association of sustained cerebral edema with poor neurological outcome following hypoxia-ischaemia in the neonate suggests that measurement of cerebral edema may allow early prediction of outcome in these infants. Direct measurements of cerebral impedance have been widely used in animal studies to monitor cerebral edema, but such invasive measurements(More)
Multi-frequency bio-impedance has the potential to identify infants at risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome following hypoxia by detecting cerebral edema. This study investigated the relationship between the severity of an hypoxic/ischemic episode, neurological outcome following the hypoxia and non-invasively measured cerebral bioelectrical impedance in(More)
The homeostasis of glutamate is critical to normal brain function; deficiencies in the regulation of extracellular glutamate are thought to be a major determinant of damage in hypoxic brains. Extracellular levels of glutamate are regulated mainly by plasmalemmal glutamate transporters. We have evaluated the distribution of the glutamate transporter GLAST(More)
It is generally assumed that rodent brains can be used as representative models of neurochemical function in other species, such as humans. We have compared the distributions of the predominant glial glutamate transporters in rodents, rabbits, cats, pigs, monkeys, and humans. We identify similarities but also significant differences between species. GLT-1v,(More)
We have examined brains of neonatal pigs that were rendered hypoxic. Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the detoxification of glutamate and ammonia, was rapidly lost from astrocytes in regions susceptible to damage, including the CA1 of hippocampus and various cortical regions. Conversely, resilient areas such as the dentate gyrus exhibited little(More)
Reduction in microtubule-associated-protein-2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity is a sensitive and quantifiable early marker of neural injury in rats. This study assessed the reliability of MAP2 as an early marker of neural injury following hypoxia/ischaemia in neonatal piglets, and compared the effects of perfusion and immersion fixation on MAP2 immunoreactivity.(More)
A comparison of a constant (continuous delivery of 4% FiO2) and a variable (initial 5% FiO2 with adjustments to induce low amplitude EEG (LAEEG) and hypotension) hypoxic/ischemic insult was performed to determine which insult was more effective in producing a consistent degree of survivable neuropathological damage in a newborn piglet model of perinatal(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the feasibility of an individualized exercise program to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in obese pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study was a pilot randomized controlled trial with obese pregnant women (intervention group, individualized exercise program [n = 25]; control group, usual care [n = 25]).(More)
To determine whether the sympathetic nervous system plays any role in the inter-individual variation of cardiovascular response to hypoxia in newborns, neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic response during hypoxia in piglets. Due to the nonstationary nature of HRV signals and the inaccuracy in pre-defined neonatal HRV(More)
In the electrocardiograph (ECG), R-wave is the positive upward deflection in the QRS complex which represents the depolarization of both left and right ventricles. Accurate detection of the R-wave peaks in the ECG plays a primary role in the construction and analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV). Numerous methods have been proposed to enhance the(More)