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Multi-frequency bio-impedance has the potential to identify infants at risk of poor neurodevelopmental outcome following hypoxia by detecting cerebral edema. This study investigated the relationship between the severity of an hypoxic/ischemic episode, neurological outcome following the hypoxia and non-invasively measured cerebral bioelectrical impedance in(More)
The association of sustained cerebral edema with poor neurological outcome following hypoxia-ischaemia in the neonate suggests that measurement of cerebral edema may allow early prediction of outcome in these infants. Direct measurements of cerebral impedance have been widely used in animal studies to monitor cerebral edema, but such invasive measurements(More)
It is generally assumed that rodent brains can be used as representative models of neurochemical function in other species, such as humans. We have compared the distributions of the predominant glial glutamate transporters in rodents, rabbits, cats, pigs, monkeys, and humans. We identify similarities but also significant differences between species. GLT-1v,(More)
The homeostasis of glutamate is critical to normal brain function; deficiencies in the regulation of extracellular glutamate are thought to be a major determinant of damage in hypoxic brains. Extracellular levels of glutamate are regulated mainly by plasmalemmal glutamate transporters. We have evaluated the distribution of the glutamate transporter GLAST(More)
We have examined brains of neonatal pigs that were rendered hypoxic. Glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in the detoxification of glutamate and ammonia, was rapidly lost from astrocytes in regions susceptible to damage, including the CA1 of hippocampus and various cortical regions. Conversely, resilient areas such as the dentate gyrus exhibited little(More)
Reduction in microtubule-associated-protein-2 (MAP2) immunoreactivity is a sensitive and quantifiable early marker of neural injury in rats. This study assessed the reliability of MAP2 as an early marker of neural injury following hypoxia/ischaemia in neonatal piglets, and compared the effects of perfusion and immersion fixation on MAP2 immunoreactivity.(More)
A comparison of a constant (continuous delivery of 4% FiO2) and a variable (initial 5% FiO2 with adjustments to induce low amplitude EEG (LAEEG) and hypotension) hypoxic/ischemic insult was performed to determine which insult was more effective in producing a consistent degree of survivable neuropathological damage in a newborn piglet model of perinatal(More)
ONLINE APPENDIX Detailed Methodology Study Design. The pilot randomized control trial was conducted during pregnancy from 12 weeks gestation to delivery. Data were collected during pregnancy by research midwives and physiotherapists at four time points: 12, 20 28 and 36 weeks gestation. The team delivering the intervention also included exercise(More)
To determine whether the sympathetic nervous system plays any role in the inter-individual variation of cardiovascular response to hypoxia in newborns, neonatal heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic response during hypoxia in piglets. Due to the nonstationary nature of HRV signals and the inaccuracy in pre-defined neonatal HRV(More)
Perinatal hypoxia is a cause of cerebral injury in foetuses and neonates. Detection of foetal hypoxia during labour based on the pattern recognition of heart rate signals suffers from high observer variability and low specificity. We describe a new automated hypoxia detection method using time–frequency analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signals. This(More)