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Although distinct pathological stages of breast cancer have been described, the molecular differences among these stages are largely unknown. Here, through the combined use of laser capture microdissection and DNA microarrays, we have generated in situ gene expression profiles of the premalignant, preinvasive, and invasive stages of human breast cancer. Our(More)
Tamoxifen significantly reduces tumor recurrence in certain patients with early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, but markers predictive of treatment failure have not been identified. Here, we generated gene expression profiles of hormone receptor-positive primary breast cancers in a set of 60 patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen(More)
" Collaborative learning " is an umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together. Usually, students are working in groups of two or more, mutually searching for understanding, solutions, or meanings, or creating a product. Collaborative learning activities vary widely,(More)
OBJECTIVE Prophylactic mastectomy (PM) offers 90% or greater reduction in risk of breast cancer to women at increased hereditary risk. Nonetheless, acceptance in North America is low (0-27%) and 25-50% of women electing surgery report psychological distress and/or difficulty adapting following PM. Most women also report reduced cancer worry postoperatively.(More)
A common feature of many advanced cancers is their enhanced capacity to metabolize glucose to lactic acid. In a challenging study designed to assess whether such cancers can be debilitated, we seeded hepatocellular carcinoma cells expressing the highly glycolytic phenotype into two different locations of young rats. Advanced cancers (2-3cm) developed and(More)
OBJECTIVE The opportunity to integrate clinical decision support systems into clinical practice is limited due to the lack of structured, machine readable data in the current format of the electronic health record. Natural language processing has been designed to convert free text into machine readable data. The aim of the current study was to ascertain the(More)
The biotechnological task of controlling human aging will evidently be complex, given the failure of all simple strategies for accomplishing this task to date. In view of this complexity, a multi-step approach will be necessary. One precedent for a multi-step biotechnological success is the burgeoning control of human infectious diseases from 1840 to 2000.(More)
PURPOSE Extracting information from electronic medical record is a time-consuming and expensive process when done manually. Rule-based and machine learning techniques are two approaches to solving this problem. In this study, we trained a machine learning model on pathology reports to extract pertinent tumor characteristics, which enabled us to create a(More)
BACKGROUND Histopathology is the only accepted method to measure and stage the breast tumor size. However, there is a need to find another method to measure and stage the tumor size when the pathological assessment is not available. Micro-computed tomography. (micro-CT) has the ability to measure tumor in three dimensions in an intact lumpectomy specimen.(More)