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We have examined the morphology and osmotic properties of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) prepared by extrusion. Contrary to expectations, we observe by cryo-electron microscopy that such vesicles, under isoosmotic conditions, are non-spherical. This morphology appears to be a consequence of vesicle passage through the filter pores during preparation. As(More)
The morphological consequences of differences in the monolayer surface areas of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) have been examined employing cryoelectron microscopy techniques. Surface area was varied by inducing net transbilayer transport of dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC):DOPG (9:1, mol:mol) LUVs in response to(More)
Monoclonal antibodies are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceutical products, however, their potential is limited by the high cost of development and manufacturing. Here we present a safe and cost-effective platform for in vivo expression of therapeutic antibodies using nucleoside-modified mRNA. To demonstrate feasibility and protective efficacy,(More)
We adopted a rational approach to design cationic lipids for use in formulations to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA). Starting with the ionizable cationic lipid 1,2-dilinoleyloxy-3-dimethylaminopropane (DLinDMA), a key lipid component of stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP) as a benchmark, we used the proposed in vivo mechanism of action of(More)
Special (lipid) delivery: The role of the ionizable lipid pK(a) in the in vivo delivery of siRNA by lipid nanoparticles has been studied with a large number of head group modifications to the lipids. A tight correlation between the lipid pK(a) value and silencing of the mouse FVII gene (FVII ED(50) ) was found, with an optimal pK(a) range of 6.2-6.5. The(More)
In recent years, RNA interference (RNAi) therapeutics, most notably with lipid nanoparticle-based delivery systems, have advanced into human clinical trials. The results from these early clinical trials suggest that lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), and the novel ionizable lipids that comprise them, will be important materials in this emerging field of medicine.(More)
Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) encapsulating short interfering RNAs that target hepatic genes are advancing through clinical trials, and early results indicate the excellent gene silencing observed in rodents and nonhuman primates also translates to humans. This success has motivated research to identify ways to further advance this delivery platform. Here, we(More)
Currently available delivery systems for genetic drugs have limited utility for systemic applications. Cationic liposome/plasmid DNA or oligonucleotide complexes are rapidly cleared from circulation, and the highest levels of activity are observed in 'first pass' organs, such as the lungs, spleen and liver. Engineered viruses can generate an immune(More)
Being a transient carrier of genetic information, mRNA could be a versatile, flexible, and safe means for protein therapies. While recent findings highlight the enormous therapeutic potential of mRNA, evidence that mRNA-based protein therapies are feasible beyond small animals such as mice is still lacking. Previous studies imply that mRNA therapeutics(More)