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Binding of dsDNA by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) triggers formation of the metazoan second messenger c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p], which binds the signaling protein STING with subsequent activation of the interferon (IFN) pathway. We show that human hSTING(H232) adopts a "closed" conformation upon binding c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] and its linkage isomer(More)
Recent studies identified cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) as a metazoan second messenger triggering an interferon response. cGAMP is generated from GTP and ATP by cytoplasmic dsDNA sensor cGAMP synthase (cGAS). We combined structural, chemical, biochemical, and cellular assays to demonstrate that this second messenger contains G(2',5')pA and A(3',5')pG(More)
Signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella with differential recovery from wild-type and immunodeficient mice revealed that the gene here named cdgR[for c-diguanylate (c-diGMP) regulator] is required for the bacterium to resist host phagocyte oxidase in vivo. CdgR consists solely of a glutamate-alanine-leucine (EAL) domain, a predicted cyclic(More)
A set of 10 non-self-complementary nonadeoxyribonucleoside octaphosphates, d(GGTTXTTGG) and d(CCAAYAACC), where X and Y are A, C, G, T, or O6MeG, has been synthesized by a large-scale, automated, phosphoramidite procedure. Purification was effected by reversed-phase HPLC, and the base composition was verified by analytical HPLC after enzymatic degradation(More)
A set of four self-complementary dodecanucleoside undecaphosphates, d[CGNGAATTC(O6Me)GCG], where N = A, C, G, or T, has been synthesized by a phosphoramidite procedure. A single large-scale preparation of the nonamer d[DMT-GpApApTpTpCp(O6Me)GpCpG] was divided into four portions for synthesis of the dodecamers. The synthesis, purification (high-performance(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) develops resistance to 3'-azido-2',3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) by acquiring mutations in reverse transcriptase that enhance the ATP-mediated excision of AZT monophosphate from the 3' end of the primer. The excision reaction occurs at the dNTP-binding site, uses ATP as a pyrophosphate donor, unblocks the primer(More)
We report a combined thermodynamic and structural characterization of a DNA tetraplex. Using spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques, we demonstrate that d(TG3T) and d(TG3T2G3T), in the presence of K+, form stable tetramolecular complexes. From differential scanning calorimetry measurements, we obtain the following thermodynamic profiles for formation of(More)
An integrated set of reactions and conditions that allow an eight-step one-flask synthesis of the protected derivatives of c-di-GMP and the [R(p),R(p)] and [R(p),S(p)] thiophosphate analogues is reported. Deprotection is also carried out as a one-flask procedure, with the final products isolated by crystallization from the reaction mixture. Chromatography(More)
O6-Alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase is a DNA repair protein known to carry out the transfer of alkyl groups from the O6-position of guanine in alkylated DNA to a cysteine acceptor site contained within its own protein sequence. We have examined the ability of this protein isolated from either E. coli or mammalian cells to perform this repair reaction in(More)
K65R is a primary reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation selected in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients taking antiretroviral regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or other nucleoside analog RT drugs. We determined the crystal structures of K65R mutant RT cross-linked to double-stranded DNA and in complexes with tenofovir(More)