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Mouse breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39; Chi3l1) and its human homologue YKL-40 are chitinase-like proteins that lack chitinase activity. Although YKL-40 is expressed in exaggerated quantities and correlates with disease activity in asthma and many other disorders, the biological properties of BRP-39/YKL-40 have only been rudimentarily defined. We(More)
Upon activation, neutrophils release DNA fibers decorated with antimicrobial proteins, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although NETs are bactericidal and contribute to innate host defense, excessive NET formation has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating NET formation, particularly(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is characterized by a T(H)2 immune response. CD4(+)CD25(hi) regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed to prevent allergic diseases through suppression of T(H)2 responses. OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the role of CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells in children with asthma. METHODS CD4(+)CD25(hi) Tregs and forkhead/winged-helix(More)
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) activates neutrophils via the chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2. However, the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis are frequently colonized by bacterial pathogens, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils and IL-8. Here we show that IL-8 promotes bacterial killing by neutrophils through CXCR1 but not CXCR2.(More)
The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 was found to be increased in patients with severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two disease conditions featuring neutrophilic infiltrates. Based on these studies and a previous report indicating that neutrophils secrete YKL-40, we hypothesized that YKL-40 plays a key role in cystic fibrosis (CF)(More)
Various inflammatory diseases are characterized by tissue infiltration of neutrophils. Chemokines recruit and activate leukocytes, but neutrophils are traditionally known to be restricted in their chemokine receptor (CR) expression repertoire. Neutrophils undergo phenotypic and functional changes under inflammatory conditions, but the mechanisms regulating(More)
Neutrophils, the prototypic cells of the innate immune system, are recruited to infected sites to protect the human body from invading pathogens. To accomplish this function, neutrophils sense pathogens and endogenous damage-associated molecules via innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors. This(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterized by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a sustained accumulation of neutrophils. In this study, we analyzed 1) the expression of MyD88-dependent TLRs on circulating and airway neutrophils in P. aeruginosa-infected CF patients, P. aeruginosa-infected non-CF bronchiectasis patients, and noninfected(More)
BACKGROUND Chitin, after cellulose the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is an essential component of exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps and insects and protects these organisms from harsh conditions in their environment. Unexpectedly, chitin has been found to activate innate immune cells and to elicit murine airway inflammation. The skin(More)
BACKGROUND Inflammatory lung diseases are a major morbidity factor in children. Therefore, novel strategies for early detection of inflammatory lung diseases are of high interest. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized via Toll-like receptors and CD14. CD14 exists as a soluble (sCD14) and membrane-associated (mCD14) protein, present on the surface(More)