Learn More
OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was(More)
Let y i ; i = 1; ; n be independent observations with the density of y i of the form h(y i ; f i) = expy i f i ?b(f i)+c(y i)], where b and c are given functions and b is twice continuously diierentiable and bounded away from 0. Let f i = f(t(i)), where t = (t 1 ; ; t d) 2 T (1) T (d) = T , the T () are measureable spaces of rather general form, and f is an(More)
We propose the randomized Generalized Approximate Cross Validation (ranGACV) method for choosing multiple smoothing parameters in penalized likelihood estimates for Bernoulli data. The method is intended for application with penalized likelihood smoothing spline ANOVA models. In addition we propose a class of approximate numerical methods for solving the(More)
Tinnitus (ringing or buzzing in the ear or head) can range from barely noticeable to debilitating. Although a few studies have estimated the prevalence of this condition in adult populations, we know of no population-based estimates of incidence. As part of a population-based study of hearing loss in adults aged 48 to 92 years at baseline in Beaver Dam,(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the 5-year incidence of dry eye and to examine its association with risk factors. METHODS The population of Beaver Dam, Wis, that was 43 to 84 years of age (n = 5924) was examined in the 1988-1990 (n = 4926), 1993-1995 (n = 3722), and 1998-2000 study phases (n = 2962). At the 1993-1995 examination, when dry eye data were first(More)
The LASSO-Patternsearch algorithm is proposed to efficiently identify patterns of multiple dichotomous risk factors for outcomes of interest in demographic and genomic studies. The patterns considered are those that arise naturally from the log linear expansion of the multivariate Bernoulli density. The method is designed for the case where there is a(More)
PURPOSE To describe the relationship of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber with cardiovascular risk factors, including inflammatory biomarkers, in a multiethnic population of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese. METHODS A cross-sectional study comprising 5979 persons aged 45 to 84 years residing in six U.S. communities. Retinal vascular caliber was(More)
Olfactory function may be important for environmental and nutritional safety and enjoyment. Population-based epidemiological studies of olfaction are needed to understand the magnitude of the health burden, identify modifiable risk factors, and develop and test prevention and treatment strategies for olfactory impairment. However, measuring olfaction in(More)
This paper presents a nonparametric penalized likelihood approach for variable selection and model building, called likelihood basis pursuit (LBP). In the setting of a tensor product reproducing kernel Hilbert space, we decompose the log likelihood into the sum of different functional components such as main effects and interactions, with each component(More)
PURPOSE To examine prevalence of five age-related eye conditions (age-related cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy [DR], and visual impairment) in the United States. METHODS Review of published scientific articles and unpublished research findings. RESULTS Cataract, AMD, open-angle glaucoma, DR, and visual impairment prevalences are(More)