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OBJECTIVE To examine the global prevalence and major risk factors for diabetic retinopathy (DR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (VTDR) among people with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A pooled analysis using individual participant data from population-based studies around the world was performed. A systematic literature review was(More)
We propose a new in-sample cross validation based method (randomized GACV) for choosing smoothing or bandwidth parameters that govern the bias-variance or fit-complexity tradeoff in 'soft' classification. Soft classification refers to a learning procedure which estimates the probability that an example with a given attribute vector is in class 1 vs class O.(More)
A robust and automatic system has been developed to detect the visual axis and extract important feature landmarks from slit-lamp photographs, and objectively grade the severity of nuclear sclerosis based on the intensities of those landmarks. Using linear regression, we first select the features that play important roles in classification, and then fit a(More)
OBJECTIVE There are conflicting data regarding relationships of systemic biomarkers of inflammation, hemostasis, and homocysteine with diabetic retinopathy. We examined these relationships in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 921 participants with diabetes were included. Diabetic retinopathy was graded from(More)
We describe the use of smoothing spline analysis of variance (SS-ANOVA) in the penalized log likelihood context, for learning (estimating) the probability p of a '1' outcome, given a training set with attribute vectors and outcomes. p is of the form pet) = eJ(t) /(1 + eJ(t)), where, if t is a vector of attributes, f is learned as a sum of smooth functions(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular (CV) health in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and determined its relationship with prevalent retinopathy, wider retinal venular diameters, and narrower arteriolar diameters, which are risk markers for subclinical cerebrovascular disease and are associated with increased(More)
OBJECTIVE The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study (WDRS) cohort consisted of patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in the same geographic region as, but 8-34 years later than the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy (WESDR) cohort, providing a unique opportunity to assess changes in complications. We estimated the current prevalence and(More)
Information quality problems may occur because of the ease with which information can be published on the Internet. The study proposed here examines the effect of a simple training intervention designed to sensitize users to potential problems with the quality of Internet-based information. A survey based on a framework identifying fifteen dimensions of(More)
BACKGROUND Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies(More)