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This study provides current data on key questions about retraction of scientific articles. Findings confirm that the rate of retractions remains low but is increasing. The most commonly cited reason for retraction was research error or inability to reproduce results; the rate from research misconduct is an underestimate, since some retractions necessitated(More)
Every field of practice has the responsibility to evaluate its outcomes and to test its theories. Evidence of the underdevelopment of measurement instruments in bioethics suggests that attending to strengthening existing instruments and developing new ones will facilitate the interpretation of accumulating bodies of research as well as the making of(More)
The purpose of this article is to report what can be learned about nurses' ethical conflicts by the systematic analysis of methodologically similar studies. Five studies were identified and analysed for: (1) the character of ethical conflicts experienced; (2) similarities and differences in how the conflicts were experienced and how they were resolved; and(More)
While nearly all patients with a chronic disease must self-manage their condition to some extent, preparation for these responsibilities is infrequently assured in the USA. The result can be significant harm and the undermining of a patient's ability to take advantage of life opportunities and be productive. Agreeing to care for a patient involves a moral(More)
Adherence of patients to transplantation regimens has been problematic. Patient self-management of the chronic diseases that frequently lead to transplantation is now the standard of practice, although that practice has been incompletely implemented. Through its focus on developing patients' skills and confidence in their ability to perform medical(More)
Although patient education is central to the ethical practice of nursing, it can be practiced in an ethically contested or unethical way. It is sometimes used to: forward a societal goal the individual might not have chosen; assume that patients should learn to accommodate unjust treatment; exclude the views of all except the dominant health care provider(More)
Patient self-management (SM) of chronic disease is an evolving movement, with some forms documented as yielding important outcomes. Potential benefits from proper preparation and maintenance of patient SM skills include quality care tailored to the patient's preferences and life goals, and increase in skills in problem solving, confidence and success,(More)
Various types of teaching and learning strategies can be effectively employed to assist students' professional development in ethical decision-making skills. To be prepared to act as a moral agent in clinical practice, a terminal goal upon completion of the baccalaureate program is the student's ability to develop and consistently use a systematic(More)