Barbara K. Reck

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Metals are infinitely recyclable in principle, but in practice, recycling is often inefficient or essentially nonexistent because of limits imposed by social behavior, product design, recycling technologies, and the thermodynamics of separation. We review these topics, distinguishing among common, specialty, and precious metals. The most beneficial actions(More)
We are especially thankful to Christina Meskers, Umicore, for her valuable contributions to the manuscript. We are grateful for comments on earlier drafts of this report by J. Guido Sonnemann, UNEP, supervised the preparation of this report and provided valuable input and comments. Thanks go to Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker and Ashok Khosla as co-chairs of(More)
The energy used to produce austenitic stainless steel was quantified throughout its entire life cycle for three scenarios: (1) current global operations, (2) 100% recycling, and (3) use of only virgin materials. Data are representative of global average operations in the early 2000s. The primary energy requirements to produce 1 metric ton of austenitic(More)
Episodic supply shortages of metals and unsettling predictions of potential supply constraints in the future have led to a series of recent criticality evaluations. This study applies a consistent criticality methodology to the United States, Australia, and to the global level for both 2008 and 2012. It is the first time that criticality assessments are(More)
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