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A representation and interpretation of the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve obtained by the "rating" method, or by mathematical predictions based on patient characteristics, is presented. It is shown that in such a setting the area represents the probability that a randomly chosen diseased subject is (correctly) rated or ranked(More)
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to describe and compare the performance of diagnostic technology and diagnostic algorithms. This paper refines the statistical comparison of the areas under two ROC curves derived from the same set of patients by taking into account the correlation between the areas that is induced by the paired nature(More)
Correlates of physicians' liking for their patients were examined among 17 internists at a health maintenance organization and 530 of their patients 70 years of age and older. Analyses were conducted for the entire sample as well as for individual physicians, whose results were combined by meta-analysis. Both kinds of analysis showed that patients were more(More)
Combining opinion from expert panels is becoming a more common method of selecting criteria to define quality of health care. The Rand Corporation pioneered this method is the 1950s and 1960s in the context of forecasting technological events. Since then, numerous organizations have adopted the methodology to develop local and national policy. In the(More)
D IAGNOSIS AND RECOGNITION of disease using diagnostic imaging has undergone significant change and development in the past 25 years. This article focuses on 3 major areas of imaging: new techniques, image-guided therapy, and bioinformatics, each of which reflects the dramatic progress in this field. Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed(More)
BACKGROUND Studies that are the basis of recommended volume thresholds for CABG surgery are outdated and not reflective of recent advances in the field. This study examines both hospital and surgeon volume-mortality relations for CABG surgery through the use of a population-based clinical data set. METHODS AND RESULTS Data from New York's clinical CABG(More)
Nonrandomized comparative effectiveness studies contribute to clinical and biologic understanding of treatments by themselves, via subsequent confirmation in a more targeted randomized clinical trial, or through advances in basic science. Although methodological challenges and a lack of accepted principles to assess the quality of nonrandomized studies of(More)
This paper estimates the value of medical research, using cardiovascular disease as a case study. We highlight two roles of medical research: the new therapies it leads to; the information that is provided to consumers, allowing for health-improving behavioral changes. We estimate the return to new medical treatments at about 4 to 1 and the return to health(More)
BACKGROUND Some have the opinion that patients cared for in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) hospitals receive care of poorer quality than those cared for in non-VHA institutions. To assess the quality of care in VHA hospitals, we compared the outcome of acute myocardial infarction among patients in VHA and non-VHA institutions while controlling for(More)
An online survey of deans/directors of 266 baccalaureate and higher nursing programs in the U.S. was developed by informatics expert nurses. Participants (1) identified nursing informatics (NI) competencies and knowledge of undergraduate and/or graduate students in their nursing programs; (2) determined faculty preparedness to teach NI and to use(More)