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OBJECTIVE The present study investigated involuntary change detection in a two-tone pre-attentive auditory discrimination paradigm in order to better understand the information processing mechanisms underlying attention deficits in fragile X syndrome (FXS) males. METHODS Sixteen males with the FXS full mutation and 20 age-matched control participants(More)
Primary or nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) is a heterogeneous condition in which affected patients do not have any distinctive clinical or biochemical features in common apart from cognitive impairment. Although it is present in approximately 0.15-0.3% of males, most of the genetic defects associated with MRX, which may involve more than ten(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with a microscopically visible deletion of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 1 have a recognisable phenotype, including mental retardation, microcephaly, growth retardation, a distinct facial appearance and various midline defects including corpus callosum abnormalities, cardiac, gastro-oesophageal and urogenital defects, as(More)
X-linked forms of mental retardation (XLMR) include a variety of different disorders and may account for up to 25% of all inherited cases of mental retardation. So far, seven X-chromosomal genes mutated in nonspecific mental retardation (MRX) have been identified: FMR2, GDI1, RPS6KA3, IL1RAPL, TM4SF2, OPHN1 and PAK3 (refs 2-9). The products of the latter(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined whether attention deficits in fragile X syndrome (FXS) can be traced back to abnormalities in basic information processing. METHOD Sixteen males with FXS and 22 age-matched control participants (mean age 29 years) performed a standard oddball task to examine selective attention in both auditory and visual modalities. Five FXS(More)
It is now well recognized that periconceptional folic acid or folic acid containing multivitamin supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). Recently we were able to show that homozygosity for a thermolabile variant of the enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase is associated with an increased risk for spina bifida in patients(More)
p63 mutations have been associated with EEC syndrome (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate), as well as with nonsyndromic split hand-split foot malformation (SHFM). We performed p63 mutation analysis in a sample of 43 individuals and families affected with EEC syndrome, in 35 individuals affected with SHFM, and in three families with the(More)
Large deletions in Xq21 often are associated with contiguous gene syndromes consisting of X-linked deafness type 3 (DFN3), mental retardation (MRX), and choroideremia (CHM). The identification of deletions associated with classic CHM or DFN3 facilitated the positional cloning of the underlying genes, REP-1 and POU3F4, respectively, and enabled the(More)