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BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Vitamin D is required for bone growth and normal insulin secretion. Maternal hypovitaminosis D may impair fetal growth and increase the risk of gestational diabetes. We have related maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy to maternal and newborn glucose and insulin concentrations, and newborn size, in a South Indian population. (More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin-D deficiency and vitamin-D receptor genotype (VDR) are risk factors for several disorders with inflammatory components, including coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes, though the mechanisms involved are unclear. AIM To examine the hypothesis that vitamin D status modulates the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) system in a population(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculoskeletal health in children, but its relation with offspring metabolic risk is not known. OBJECTIVE We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometric variables, body(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D insufficiency is common in women of childbearing age and increasing evidence suggests that the risk of osteoporotic fracture in adulthood could be determined partly by environmental factors during intrauterine and early postnatal life. We investigated the effect of maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy on childhood skeletal growth.(More)
Vitamin D deficiency reduces insulin secretion and still occurs in East London Asians in whom the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is at least four times that of Caucasians. Vitamin D status was assessed in 44 of 65 non-diabetic subjects 'at risk' of diabetes (spot blood glucose level >6.0 mmol/l <2 h post cibum, or>4.6 mmol/l >2 h post cibum on two separate(More)
Vitamin D status was assessed in 142 elderly Dutchmen participating in a prospective population-based study of environmental factors in the aetiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Of the men aged 70-88 years examined between March and May 1990, 39% were vitamin D depleted. After adjustment for confounding by age, BMI, physical activity, month(More)
Maternal nutrition is a potentially important determinant of intrauterine skeletal development. Previous studies have examined the effects of individual nutrients, but the pattern of food consumption may be of greater relevance. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy and bone mass of the offspring at 9 yr of(More)
A rapid method is described for the measurement of total glycosylated haemoglobins (HbA1(a+b+c). The procedure utilizes 0.05 ml of blood and takes forty minutes to complete manually. Eighty blood samples can be analysed without automation by one person in a day. Each analysis uses less than 2 mg of potassium cyanide, resulting in a method that is both safe(More)
Betel nut (Areca catechu) is chewed regularly by at least 10% of the world population, imported by immigrant users wherever they settle, and is the fourth most widely used addictive substance. It is thought, by users, to soothe the digestion and to be a stimulant and its use has a major role in social situations. Specific arecal alkaloids act as competitive(More)
BACKGROUND The transgenerational metabolic effects of betel-quid chewing have been reported in mice but not in humans. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to determine whether exposure to paternal chewing of betel nut quids led to an increased risk of early manifestation of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in human offspring. DESIGN The subjects were selected from(More)