Barbara J Blanchard

Learn More
Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the cytoskeletal protein TAU is seen in the characteristic paired helical filaments [neurofibrillary tangles] of Alzheimer's disease [AD]. A recently described protein kinase, PK40erk, (1) a member of the ERK family of kinases, can produce in vitro many of the properties of Alzheimer-like hyperphosphorylated TAU.(More)
We report a novel observation that the neurotoxic Alzheimer peptide Abeta1-42, when pre-incubated, causes a dramatic and lasting membrane depolarization in differentiated human hNT neuronal cells and in rodent PC12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon involves activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR(1). Abeta-induced(More)
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe pyp1+ gene, encoding a protein tyrosine phosphatase (pyp1), was isolated as a high copy number suppressor of a mutation that results in reduced cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. Overexpression of pyp1+ inhibits both transcription of the fbp1 gene, which is negatively regulated by a glucose-induced activation of PKA,(More)
In Alzheimer's disease, neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptides cause a deleterious influx of calcium ions into neurons. This increase in [Ca2+]int is expected to trigger intracellular events that eventually cause cell dysfunction and cell death. We find that the aggregated beta-amyloid peptide beta AP25-35 opens irreversibly a Ca(2+)-carrying channel, as does(More)
The Abeta1-42 peptide that is overproduced in Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a large precursor protein has a normal amino acid sequence but, when liberated, misfolds at neutral pH to form "protofibrils" and fibrils that are rich in beta-sheets. We find that these protofibrils or fibrils are toxic to certain neuronal cells that carry Ca-permeant(More)
We have identified four putative human sodium channel gene sequences, 55 bp each, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on total human placental DNA with primers specific for the cDNA sequence of the rat brain sodium channel I alpha (Scn1a) gene. One of these sequences was extended bidirectionally by genomic inverse-PCR to obtain a 1.6-kb fragment.(More)
By quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of total cellular DNA, the known 4977 bp deletion in human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA delta 4977) was not detected in rapidly dividing tissue such as placenta and lymphocytes, nor in brain tissue from fetuses and in frontal cortex from two individuals 24 and 56 years old. However, in frontal cortex from(More)
Mechanisms to safely eliminate amyloids and preamyloid oligomers associated with many devastating diseases are urgently needed. Biophysical principles dictate that small molecules are unlikely to perturb large intermolecular protein-protein interfaces, let alone extraordinarily stable amyloid interfaces. Yet 4,5-dianilinophthalimide (DAPH-1) reverses(More)
An age-related phosphorylation of the 200kD neurofilament protein (NF200) has been observed in the axons of cerebellar basket cells of normal human fixed brain tissue from individuals older than 60 years, but not in younger individuals. The probe for this study was the monoclonal antibody SMI-34 which detects a phosphorylated epitope on NF200 which appears(More)
A high-throughput screen found compounds that eliminate the dramatic membrane depolarization caused by the aggregated Alzheimer Abeta1-42 peptide, which activates mGluR1 receptors. The library was composed of known biologically active compounds; the cell-based assay measured the changes of membrane potential with a slow-acting voltage-sensitive dye. We(More)