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We used a free-recall paradigm to establish a behavioral index of the retrograde and anterograde interference of emotion with episodic memory encoding. In two experiments involving 78 subjects, we show that negatively valenced items elicit retrograde amnesia, whereas positively valenced items elicit retrograde hypermnesia. These data indicate item valence(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbances of serotonergic neurotransmission appear to be particularly important for the pathophysiology of winter depression. This study investigated whether fluoxetine has antidepressant effects comparable to bright light in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder (winter type). METHOD A randomized, parallel design was used with rater(More)
When presented in a neutral context, emotional items interfere with episodic encoding of temporally contiguous non-emotional items, resulting in dissociable valence-dependent retrograde and arousal-dependent anterograde modulatory effects. By studying two rare patients with congenital lipoid proteinosis (Urbach-Wiethe) and a focal disease emphasis on the(More)
OBJECTIVE Suicidal ideation has been related to cognitive rigidity whereas suicidal behaviour itself was associated with specific executive deficits. Yet it remains unclear if a distinct cognitive suicidal phenotype does exist. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the role of suicidal thinking for the neuropsychological performance in(More)
BACKGROUND Current biological concepts of borderline personality disorder (BPD) emphasize the interference of emotional hyperarousal and cognitive functions. A prototypical example is episodic memory. Pre-clinical investigations of emotion-episodic memory interactions have shown specific retrograde and anterograde episodic memory changes in response to(More)
BACKGROUND Until now, there is a lack of useful biological markers to predict suicidal behavior in depressive patients. However, it is consistently found that suicidality is associated with a central serotonin deficit. Animal data suggest that prepulse inhibition (PPI) as well as habituation of the acoustic startle response (ASR), which are established as(More)
RATIONALE Privileged episodic encoding of an aversive event often comes at a cost of neutral events flanking the aversive event, resulting in decreased episodic memory for these neutral events. This peri-emotional amnesia is amygdala-dependent and varies as a function of norepinephrine activity. However, less is known about the amnesiogenic potential of(More)
Suicidality has been found to be associated with low pre- and postsynaptic serotonin functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether in acutely suicidal psychiatric inpatients, the blood serotonin concentration was related to the underlying psychiatric disorder and whether it was associated with changes in the affinity (dissociation constant,(More)
OBJECTIVE Evidence based on controlled studies is still limited for treatment strategies that prevent recurrence of suicide attempts. Findings from observational as well as meta-analytic studies strongly suggest that lithium may have suicide-protective properties. METHOD Patients with a recent suicide attempt in the context of an affective spectrum(More)
OBJECTIVE Low platelet monoaminoxidase B (MAO-B) activity has been associated with various forms of impulsive behaviour and suicidality. The present study investigated the relationship between MAO-B activity in platelets and aspects of suicidality in depressed patients and controls. METHOD In 87 patients with affective spectrum disorders (58% suffering(More)