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Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) derivatives that encode movement protein (MP) as a fusion to the green fluorescent protein (MP:GFP) were used in combination with antibody staining to identify host cell components to which MP and replicase accumulate in cells of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in infected BY-2 protoplasts. MP:GFP and replicase(More)
A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some(More)
Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are specific to plants and some protists. Their activation by calcium makes them important switches for the transduction of intracellular calcium signals. Here, we identify the subcellular targeting potentials for nine CDPK isoforms from Arabidopsis, as determined by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)(More)
Arabinogalactan protein and wall-associated kinase (WAK) are suspected to be regulatory players at the interface between cytoplasm and cell wall. Both WAK(s) and arabinogalactan shown likely to represent arabinogalactan protein(s) have been visualized there with computational optical-sectioning microscopy. The arabinogalactan occurs in a polyhedral array at(More)
This paper explores the properties and likely functions of an epidermal Ca(2+)-selective cation channel complex activated by tension. As many as eight or nine linked or linkable equivalent conductance units or co-channels can open together. Open time for co-channel quadruplets and quintuplets tends to be relatively long with millimolar Mg2+ (but not(More)
The starch-statolith theory of gravity reception has been tested with a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. which, lacking plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1) activity, does not synthesize starch. The hypocotyls and seedling roots of the mutant were examined by light and electron microscopy to confirm that they did not contain starch. In upright(More)
Mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channels probably serve to detect not only mechanical stress but also electrical, thermal, and diverse chemical stimuli. Because all stimuli result in a common output, most notably a shift in second messenger calcium concentration, the channels are presumed to serve as signal integrators. Further, insofar as second(More)
Using higher-resolution wide-field computational optical-sectioning fluorescence microscopy, the distribution of antigens recognized by antibodies against animal beta 1 integrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin has been visualized at the outer surface of enzymatically protoplasted onion epidermis cells and in depectinated cell wall fragments. On the protoplast(More)
Oriented deposition of cellulose fibers by cellulose-synthesizing complexes typically occurs across the plasma membrane from microtubule bundles and is guided by them. However, aligned movement of the complexes can be shown even after applied oryzalin has depolymerized microtubules. Further, there is a claim that when (1) microtubules are depolymerized with(More)
Gating of associations of mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-selective cation co-channels in the plasmalemma of onion epidermis has a strong and unusual temperature dependence. Tension-dependent activity rises steeply as temperature is lowered from 25 degrees C to about 6 degrees C, but drops to a low level at about 5 degrees C. Under the conditions tested (with Mg2+(More)