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The phonological acquisition of 129 monolingual Putonghua-speaking children, aged 1;6 to 4;6, is described. Putonghua (Modern Standard Chinese) syllables have four possible elements: tone, syllable-initial consonant, vowel, and syllable-final consonant. The children's errors suggested that Putonghua-speaking children mastered these elements in the following(More)
Little is known about the acquisition of phonology by children learning Cantonese as their first language. This paper describes the phoneme repertoires and phonological error patterns used by 268 Cantonese-speaking children aged 2;0 to 6;0, as well as a longitudinal study of tone acquisition by four children aged 1;2 to 2;0. Children had mastered the(More)
This paper reports a normative study on the phonological development of British English-speaking children. Speech samples of 684 children, aged between 3;0 and 6;11 years, randomly selected from nurseries and schools in eight different areas throughout the UK, were collected and analysed to obtain normative data. This paper reports on two aspects of speech(More)
The motor planning abilities of three subgroups of speech-disordered children were compared to normally speaking age- and comprehension-matched controls. There were 10 phonologically delayed children who used sound-pattern errors typical of chronologically aged younger children (delayed group); 10 children whose phonological system was characterised by the(More)
An example of the auditory-visual illusion in speech perception, first described by McGurk and MacDonald, is the perception of [ta] when listeners hear [pa] in synchrony with the lip movements for [ka]. One account of the illusion is that lip-read and heard speech are combined in an articulatory code since people who mispronounce words respond differently(More)
The McGurk effect, in which auditory [ba] dubbed onto [ga] lip movements is perceived as "da" or "tha," was employed in a real-time task to investigate auditory-visual speech perception in prelingual infants. Experiments 1A and 1B established the validity of real-time dubbing for producing the effect. In Experiment 2, 4 1/2-month-olds were tested in a(More)
Samples of a group of deaf children's spontaneous speech were used to derive phonological rules. The predictive value of some of the rules was assessed by asking another group of deaf children to lip-read and read nonsense words. The results indicated that the phonological systems of profoundly deaf children are partially rule-governed. There was also some(More)
The speech of children with Down's syndrome (DS) is often unintelligible, unlike many other children who have an intellectual disability. However, the nature of their speech disorder is controversial. The speech error patterns of children with DS were compared to those of intellectually average children with phonological disorder whose errors were(More)