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The phonological acquisition of 129 monolingual Putonghua-speaking children, aged 1;6 to 4;6, is described. Putonghua (Modern Standard Chinese) syllables have four possible elements: tone, syllable-initial consonant, vowel, and syllable-final consonant. The children's errors suggested that Putonghua-speaking children mastered these elements in the following(More)
The relationship between first and second language literacy was examined by identifying the skills and processes developed in the first language that were transferred to the second language. The performance of 40 university students from The People's Republic of China, Hong Kong, Vietnam and Australia were compared on a series of tasks that assessed(More)
The study evaluated the relationship between risk factors and speech disorders. The parents of 65 children with functional speech disorders (aged 2;7-7;2) and 48 normally speaking controls (aged 3;4-6;1) completed a questionnaire investigating risk factors associated in the literature with developmental communication disorders. The findings indicated that(More)
BACKGROUND There has been no previous incidence survey of children referred to a speech and language therapy service in the UK. Previous studies of prevalence of specific communication difficulties provide contradictory data from which it is difficult to plan speech and language therapy service provision. Reliable data are needed concerning the nature and(More)
Unintelligible speech in childhood is often characterised by the use of unusual or deviant (i.e. non-developmental) phonological processes, e.g. initial consonant deletion. These processes are reported to appear at speech onset and to undergo little spontaneous change during the preschool years. The study reported here documents the changes that occurred in(More)
The current study examined item exposure control procedures for testlet scored reading passages in the Verbal Reasoning section of the Medical College Admission Test with four computerized adaptive testing (CAT) systems using the partial credit model. The first system used a traditional CAT using maximum information item selection. The second used random(More)